'; ?> geneimprint : Hot off the Press http://www.geneimprint.com/site/hot-off-the-press Daily listing of the most recent articles in epigenetics and imprinting, collected from the PubMed database. en-us Fri, 14 Dec 2018 18:57:51 EST Fri, 14 Dec 2018 18:57:51 EST jirtle@radonc.duke.edu james001@jirtle.com Longitudinal personal DNA methylome dynamics in a human with a chronic condition. Chen R, Xia L, Tu K, Duan M, Kukurba K, Li-Pook-Than J, Xie D, Snyder M
Nat Med (Dec 2018)

Epigenomics regulates gene expression and is as important as genomics in precision personal health, as it is heavily influenced by environment and lifestyle. We profiled whole-genome DNA methylation and the corresponding transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from a human volunteer over a period of 36 months, generating 28 methylome and 57 transcriptome datasets. We found that DNA methylomic changes are associated with infrequent glucose level alteration, whereas the transcriptome underwent dynamic changes during events such as viral infections. Most DNA meta-methylome changes occurred 80-90 days before clinically detectable glucose elevation. Analysis of the deep personal methylome dataset revealed an unprecedented number of allelic differentially methylated regions that remain stable longitudinally and are preferentially associated with allele-specific gene regulation. Our results revealed that changes in different types of 'omics' data associate with different physiological aspects of this individual: DNA methylation with chronic conditions and transcriptome with acute events.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
ChIP-Atlas: a data-mining suite powered by full integration of public ChIP-seq data. Oki S, Ohta T, Shioi G, Hatanaka H, Ogasawara O, Okuda Y, Kawaji H, Nakaki R, Sese J, Meno C
EMBO Rep (Dec 2018)

We have fully integrated public chromatin chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) and DNase-seq data ( > 70,000) derived from six representative model organisms (human, mouse, rat, fruit fly, nematode, and budding yeast), and have devised a data-mining platform-designated ChIP-Atlas (http://chip-atlas.org). ChIP-Atlas is able to show alignment and peak-call results for all public ChIP-seq and DNase-seq data archived in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA), which encompasses data derived from GEO, ArrayExpress, DDBJ, ENCODE, Roadmap Epigenomics, and the scientific literature. All peak-call data are integrated to visualize multiple histone modifications and binding sites of transcriptional regulators (TRs) at given genomic loci. The integrated data can be further analyzed to show TR-gene and TR-TR interactions, as well as to examine enrichment of protein binding for given multiple genomic coordinates or gene names. ChIP-Atlas is superior to other platforms in terms of data number and functionality for data mining across thousands of ChIP-seq experiments, and it provides insight into gene regulatory networks and epigenetic mechanisms.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
DNA Methylation Analysis. Feng L, Lou J
Methods Mol Biol (2019)

DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to cytosine or adenine. DNA methylation can change the activity of the DNA molecule without changing the sequence. Methylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is widespread in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and it is a very important epigenetic modification event, which can regulate gene activity and influence a number of key processes such as genomic imprinting, cell differentiation, transcriptional regulation, and chromatin remodeling. Profiling DNA methylation across the genome is critical to understanding the influence of methylation in normal biology and diseases including cancer. Recent discoveries of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) oxidation derivatives including 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytsine (5fC), and 5-carboxycytosine (5caC) in mammalian genome further expand our understanding of the methylation regulation. Genome-wide analyses such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing technologies have been used to assess large fractions of the methylome. A number of different quantitative approaches have also been established to map the DNA epigenomes with single-base resolution, as represented by the bisulfite-based methods, such as classical bisulfite sequencing, pyrosequencing etc. These methods have been used to generate base-resolution maps of 5mC and its oxidation derivatives in genomic samples. The focus of this chapter is to provide the methodologies that have been developed to detect the cytosine derivatives in the genomic DNA.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Platforms for Investigating LncRNA Functions. Charles Richard JL, Eichhorn PJA
SLAS Technol (Dec 2018)

Prior to the sequencing of the human genome, it was presumed that most of the DNA coded for proteins. However, with the advent of next-generation sequencing, it has now been recognized that most complex eukaryotic genomes are in fact transcribed into noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including a family of transcripts referred to as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). LncRNAs have been implicated in many biological processes ranging from housekeeping functions such as transcription to more specialized functions such as dosage compensation or genomic imprinting, among others. Interestingly, lncRNAs are not limited to a defined set of functions but can regulate varied activities such as messenger RNA degradation, translation, and protein kinetics or function as RNA decoys or scaffolds. Although still in its infancy, research into the biology of lncRNAs has demonstrated the importance of lncRNAs in development and disease. However, the specific mechanisms through which these lncRNAs act remain poorly defined. Focused research into a small number of these lncRNAs has provided important clues into the heterogeneous nature of this family of ncRNAs. Due to the complex diversity of lncRNA function, in this review, we provide an update on the platforms available for investigators to aid in the identification of lncRNA function.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Social status alters chromatin accessibility and the gene regulatory response to glucocorticoid stimulation in rhesus macaques. Snyder-Mackler N, Sanz J, Kohn JN, Voyles T, Pique-Regi R, Wilson ME, Barreiro LB, Tung J
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (Dec 2018)

Low social status is an important predictor of disease susceptibility and mortality risk in humans and other social mammals. These effects are thought to stem in part from dysregulation of the glucocorticoid (GC)-mediated stress response. However, the molecular mechanisms that connect low social status and GC dysregulation to downstream health outcomes remain elusive. Here, we used an in vitro GC challenge to investigate the consequences of experimentally manipulated social status (i.e., dominance rank) for immune cell gene regulation in female rhesus macaques, using paired control and GC-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. We show that social status not only influences immune cell gene expression but also chromatin accessibility at hundreds of regions in the genome. Social status effects on gene expression were less pronounced following GC treatment than under control conditions. In contrast, social status effects on chromatin accessibility were stable across conditions, resulting in an attenuated relationship between social status, chromatin accessibility, and gene expression after GC exposure. Regions that were more accessible in high-status animals and regions that become more accessible following GC treatment were enriched for a highly concordant set of transcription factor binding motifs, including motifs for the GC receptor cofactor AP-1. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that social status alters the dynamics of GC-mediated gene regulation and identify chromatin accessibility as a mechanism involved in social stress-driven GC resistance. More broadly, they emphasize the context-dependent nature of social status effects on gene regulation and implicate epigenetic remodeling of chromatin accessibility as a contributing factor.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Prognostic models in primary biliary cholangitis. Cristoferi L, Nardi A, Ronca V, Invernizzi P, Mells G, Carbone M
J Autoimmun (Dec 2018)

Risk prediction modelling is important to better understand the determinants of the course and outcome of PBC and to inform the risk across the disease continuum in PBC enabling risk-stratified follow-up care and personalised therapy. Current prognostic models in PBC are based on treatment response to ursodeoxycholic acid because of the well-established relationship between alkaline phosphatase on treatment and long-term outcome. In addition, serum alkaline phosphatase correlates with ductular reaction and biliary metaplasia, which are hallmark of biliary injury. Considering the waiting time for treatment failure in high-risk patients is not inconsequential, efforts are focused on bringing forward risk stratification at diagnosis by predicting treatment response at onset. There is a need for better prognostic variables that are central to the disease process. We should take an integrative approach that incorporates multiple layers of information including genetic and environmental influences, host characteristics, clinical data, and molecular alterations for risk assessments. Biomarker discovery has an accelerated pace taking advantage of the emergence of large-scale omics platforms (genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and others) and whole-genome sequencing. In the digital era, applications of artificial intelligence, such as machine learning, can support the computing power required to analyse the vast amount of data produced by omics. The information is then used for the development of personalised risk prediction models that through clinical trials and hopefully industry partnerships can guide risk management strategies. We are facing an unprecedented opportunity for the integration of molecular diagnostics into the clinic, which promotes progress toward the personalised management of patients with PBC.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Prospective exosome-focused translational research for afatinib study of non-small cell lung cancer patients expressing EGFR (EXTRA study). Okuma Y, Morikawa K, Tanaka H, Yokoyama T, Itani H, Horiuchi K, Nakagawa H, Takahashi N, Bessho A, Soejima K, Kishi K, Togashi A, Kanai Y, Ueda K, Horimoto K, Matsutani N, Seki N
Thorac Cancer (Dec 2018)

Patients with EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) exhibit resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) within 9-14 months of therapy. Recently, EGFR-mutated NSCLC has demonstrated the potential for heterogeneity; therefore, the manner of clonal heterogeneity may impact the duration of progression-free and overall survival and other parameters affecting EGFR-TKI treatment efficacy. However no predictive biomarker of these favorable treatment efficacies has been identified to date. The exosome-focused translational research for afatinib (EXTRA) study aims to identify a novel predictive biomarker and a resistance marker for afatinib by analyzing data from association studies of the clinical efficacy of afatinib and four "OMICs" (genomics, proteomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics) using peripheral blood from patients treated with afatinib. This study aims to: (i) conduct comprehensive multi-OMIC analyses in a prospective clinical trial, and (ii) focus on both sera/plasma and exosome as a source for OMIC analyses to identify a novel predictor of the efficacy of a specific drug. To eliminate the carryover bias of prior treatment, systemic treatment-naïve patients were enrolled. The candidates to be screened for biomarkers comprise a discovery cohort of 60 patients and an independent validation cohort of 40 patients. The EXTRA study is the first trial to screen novel biomarkers of longer treatment efficacy of EGFR-TKIs using four-OMICs analyses, focusing on both "naked or free" molecules and "capsulated" exosomal components in serially collected peripheral blood.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Genome-Wide Analysis of Parent-of-Origin Allelic Expression in Endosperms of Brassicaceae Species, Brassica rapa. Yoshida T, Kawanabe T, Bo Y, Fujimoto R, Kawabe A
Plant Cell Physiol (Dec 2018)

Uniparental gene expression, observed in both animals and plants, is termed genomic imprinting. Genomic imprinting is a well-known epigenetic phenomenon regulated through epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. Recent genome-wide studies of endosperm transcription have revealed the rapid change of imprinted genes between species, suggesting the flexibility of this phenomenon. Although the functional significance and evolutionary trends of imprinted genes are still obscure, it can be clarified by inter-species comparisons. In this study, we analyzed the pattern of genomic imprinting in Brassica rapa, a species related to Arabidopsis thaliana. Compared with the ancient karyotype of A. thaliana and B. rapa, B. rapa has a triplicated genome. Many imprinted genes, beyond the estimated number previously reported in other species, were observed. Several imprinted genes have been conserved among species in Brassicaceae. We also observed rapid molecular evolution of imprinted genes compared to non-imprinted genes in B. rapa. Especially, imprinted gene overlapping between species showed more rapid molecular evolution and preferential expression in endosperms. It may imply that a small number of imprinted genes have retained functional roles among diverged species and have been the target of natural selection.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
AFF3-DNA methylation interplay in maintaining the mono-allelic expression pattern of XIST in terminally differentiated cells. Zhang Y, Wang C, Liu X, Yang Q, Ji H, Yang M, Xu M, Zhou Y, Xie W, Luo Z, Lin C
J Mol Cell Biol (Dec 2018)

X chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting are two classic epigenetic regulatory processes that cause mono-allelic gene expression. In female mammals, mono-allelic expression of the long non-coding RNA gene X-Inactive Specific Transcript (XIST) is essential for initiation of X chromosome inactivation upon differentiation. We have previously demonstrated that the central factor of super elongation complex-like 3 (SEC-L3), AFF3, is enriched at gamete differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of the imprinted loci and regulates the imprinted gene expression. Here, we found that AFF3 can also bind to the DMR downstream of the XIST promoter. Knockdown of AFF3 leads to de-repression of the inactive allele of XIST in terminally differentiated cells. In addition, the binding of AFF3 to the XIST DMR relies on DNA methylation and also regulates DNA methylation level at DMR region. However, unlike the imprinted loci, the KAP1-H3K9 methylation machineries might not play major roles in maintaining the mono-allelic expression pattern of XIST in these cells. Thus, our results suggest the differential mechanisms involved in the XIST DMR and gDMR regulation, which both require AFF3 and DNA methylation.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Link between depression and cardiovascular diseases due to epigenomics and proteomics: Focus on energy metabolism. Kahl KG, Stapel B, Frieling H
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry (Mar 2019)

Major depression is the most common mental disorder and a leading cause of years lived with disability. In addition to the burden attributed to depressive symptoms and reduced daily life functioning, people with major depression are at increased risk of premature mortality, particularly due to cardiovascular diseases. Several studies point to a bi-directional relation between major depression and cardiovascular diseases, thereby indicating that both diseases may share common pathophysiological pathways. These include lifestyle factors (e.g. physical activity, smoking behavior), dysfunctions of endocrine systems (e.g. hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal axis), and a dysbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. Furthermore, recent research point to the role of epigenomic and proteomic factors, that are reviewed here with a particular focus on the mitochondrial energy metabolism.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Comprehensive methylation analysis of imprinting-associated differentially methylated regions in colorectal cancer. Hidaka H, Higashimoto K, Aoki S, Mishima H, Hayashida C, Maeda T, Koga Y, Yatsuki H, Joh K, Noshiro H, Iwakiri R, Kawaguchi A, Yoshiura KI, Fujimoto K, Soejima H
Clin Epigenetics (Dec 2018)

Imprinted genes are regulated by DNA methylation at imprinting-associated differentially methylated regions (iDMRs). Abnormal expression of imprinted genes is implicated in imprinting disorders and tumors. In colorectal cancer (CRC), methylation and imprinting status of the IGF2/H19 domain have been studied. However, no comprehensive methylation analysis of iDMRs in CRC has been reported. Furthermore, the relationship between iDMR methylation status and other methylation-related issues, such as CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) methylation, remains unclear.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Maternal knockout causes loss of H3K27me3 imprinting and random X inactivation in the extraembryonic cells. Inoue A, Chen Z, Yin Q, Zhang Y
Genes Dev (12 2018)

Genomic imprinting is essential for mammalian development. Recent studies have revealed that maternal histone H3 Lys27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) can mediate DNA methylation-independent genomic imprinting. However, the regulatory mechanisms and functions of this new imprinting mechanism are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that maternal Eed, an essential component of the Polycomb group complex 2 (PRC2), is required for establishing H3K27me3 imprinting. We found that all H3K27me3-imprinted genes, including , lose their imprinted expression in maternal knockout (matKO) embryos, resulting in male-biased lethality. Surprisingly, although maternal X-chromosome inactivation (XmCI) occurs in matKO embryos at preimplantation due to loss of imprinting, it is resolved at peri-implantation. Ultimately, both X chromosomes are reactivated in the embryonic cell lineage prior to random XCI, and only a single X chromosome undergoes random XCI in the extraembryonic cell lineage. Thus, our study not only demonstrates an essential role of in H3K27me3 imprinting establishment but also reveals a unique XCI dynamic in the absence of imprinting.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Advances in multiple omics of natural-killer/T cell lymphoma. Xiong J, Zhao WL
J Hematol Oncol (Dec 2018)

Natural-killer/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL) represents the most common subtype of extranodal lymphoma with aggressive clinical behavior. Prevalent in Asians and South Americans, the pathogenesis of NKTCL remains to be fully elucidated. Using system biology techniques including genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics, novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets have been revealed in NKTCL. Whole-exome sequencing studies identify recurrent somatic gene mutations, involving RNA helicases, tumor suppressors, JAK-STAT pathway molecules, and epigenetic modifiers. Another genome-wide association study reports that single nucleotide polymorphisms mapping to the class II MHC region on chromosome 6 contribute to lymphomagenesis. Alterations of oncogenic signaling pathways janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), WNT, and NOTCH, as well as epigenetic dysregulation of microRNA and long non-coding RNAs, are also frequently observed in NKTCL. As for metabolomic profiling, abnormal amino acids metabolism plays an important role on disease progression of NKTCL. Of note, through targeting multiple omics aberrations, clinical outcome of NKTCL patients has been significantly improved by asparaginase-based regimens, immune checkpoints inhibitors, and histone deacetylation inhibitors. Future investigations will be emphasized on molecular classification of NKTCL using integrated analysis of system biology, so as to optimize targeted therapeutic strategies of NKTCL in the era of precision medicine.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Deletion of the epigenetic regulator GcnE in Aspergillus niger FGSC A1279 activates the production of multiple polyketide metabolites. Wang B, Li X, Yu D, Chen X, Tabudravu J, Deng H, Pan L
Microbiol Res (Dec 2018)

Epigenetic modification is an important regulatory mechanism in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in Aspergillus species, which have been considered to be the treasure trove of new bioactive secondary metabolites. In this study, we reported that deletion of the epigenetic regulator gcnE, a histone acetyltransferase in the SAGA/ADA complex, resulted in the production of 12 polyketide secondary metabolites in A. niger FGSC A1279, which was previously not known to produce toxins or secondary metabolites. Chemical workup and structural elucidation by 1D/2D NMR and high resolution electrospray ionization mass (HR-ESIMS) yielded the novel compound nigerpyrone (1) and five known compounds: carbonarone A (2), pestalamide A (3), funalenone (4), aurasperone E (5), and aurasperone A (6). Based on chemical information and the literature, the biosynthetic gene clusters of funalenone (4), aurasperone E (5), and aurasperone A (6) were located on chromosomes of A. niger FGSC A1279. This study found that inactivation of GcnE activated the production of secondary metabolites in A. niger. The biosynthetic pathway for nigerpyrone and its derivatives was identified and characterized via gene knockout and complementation experiments. A biosynthetic model of this group of pyran-based fungal metabolites was proposed.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Mother-child transmission of epigenetic information by tunable polymorphic imprinting. Carpenter BL, Zhou W, Madaj Z, DeWitt AK, Ross JP, Grønbæk K, Liang G, Clark SJ, Molloy PL, Jones PA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (Dec 2018)

Genomic imprinting mediated by DNA methylation restricts gene expression to a single allele determined by parental origin and is not generally considered to be under genetic or environmental influence. Here, we focused on a differentially methylated region (DMR) of approximately 1.9 kb that includes a 101-bp noncoding RNA gene (/), which is maternally imprinted in ∼75% of humans. This is unlike other imprinted genes, which demonstrate monoallelic methylation in 100% of individuals. The DMR includes a CTCF binding site on the centromeric side defining the DMR boundary and is flanked by a CTCF binding site on the telomeric side. The centromeric CTCF binding site contains an A/C polymorphism (rs2346018); the C allele is associated with less imprinting. The frequency of imprinting of the DMR in infants was linked to at least two nongenetic factors, maternal age at delivery and season of conception. In a separate cohort, imprinting was associated with lower body mass index in children at 5 y of age. Thus, we propose that the imprinting status of the DMR is "tunable" in that it is associated with maternal haplotype and prenatal environment. This provides a potential mechanism for transmitting information, with phenotypic consequences, from mother to child.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Omics studies for comprehensive understanding of immunoglobulin A nephropathy: state-of-the-art and future directions. Schena FP, Serino G, Sallustio F, Falchi M, Cox SN
Nephrol Dial Transplant (Dec 2018)

Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common worldwide primary glomerulonephritis with a strong autoimmune component. The disease shows variability in both clinical phenotypes and endpoints and can be potentially subdivided into more homogeneous subtypes through the identification of specific molecular biomarkers. This review focuses on the role of omics in driving the identification of potential molecular subtypes of the disease through the integration of multilevel data from genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics. First, the identification of molecular biomarkers, including mapping of the full spectrum of common and rare IgAN risk alleles, could permit a more precise stratification of IgAN patients. Second, the analysis of transcriptomic patterns and their modulation by epigenetic factors like microRNAs has the potential to increase our understanding in the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. Third, the specificity of urinary proteomic and metabolomic signatures and the understanding of their functional relevance may contribute to the development of new non-invasive biomarkers for a better molecular characterization of the renal damage and its follow-up. All these approaches can give information for targeted therapeutic decisions and will support novel clinical decision making. In conclusion, we offer a framework of omic studies and outline barriers and potential solutions that should be used for improving the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. The ongoing decade is exploiting novel high-throughput molecular technologies and computational analyses for improving the diagnosis (precision nephrology) and treatment (personalized therapy) of the IgAN subtypes.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Polymorphic Imprinting of SLC38A4 Gene in Bovine Placenta. Xu D, Zhang C, Li J, Wang G, Chen W, Li D, Li S
Biochem Genet (Dec 2018)

Imprinted genes are characterized by monoallelic expression that is dependent on parental origin. Comparative analysis of imprinted genes between species is a powerful tool for understanding the biological significance of genomic imprinting. The slc38a4 gene encodes a neutral amino acid transporter and is identified as imprinted in mice. In this study, the imprinting status of SLC38A4 was assessed in bovine adult tissues and placenta using a polymorphism-based approach. Results indicate that SLC38A4 is not imprinted in eight adult bovine tissues including heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, muscle, fat, and brain. It was interesting to note that SLC38A4 showed polymorphic status in five heterogeneous placentas, with three exhibiting paternal monoallelic expression and two exhibiting biallelic expression. Monoallelic expression of imprinted genes is generally associated with allele-specific differentially methylation regions (DMRs) of CpG islands (CGIs)-encompassed promoter; therefore, the DNA methylation statuses of three CGIs in the SLC38A4 promoter and exon 1 region were tested in three placentas (two exhibiting paternal monoallelic and one showing biallelic expression of SLC38A4) and their corresponding paternal sperms. Unexpectedly, extreme hypomethylation (< 3%) of the DNA was observed in all the three detected placentas and their corresponding paternal sperms. The absence of DMR in bovine SLC38A4 promoter region implied that DNA methylation of these three CGIs does not directly or indirectly affect the polymorphic imprinting of SLC38A4 in bovine placenta. This suggested other epigenetic features other than DNA methylation are needed in regulating the imprinting of bovine SLC38A4, which is different from that of mouse with respect to a DMR existence at the mouse's slc38a4 promoter region. Although further work is needed, this first characterization of polymorphic imprinting status of SLC38A4 in cattle placenta provides valuable information on investigating the genomic imprinting phenomenon itself.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Eating According to One's Genes? Exploring the French Public's Understanding of and Reactions to Personalized Nutrition. Fournier T, Poulain JP
Qual Health Res (Dec 2018)

In this article, we analyze qualitatively the understanding of and reactions to personalized nutrition (PN) among the French public. Focus groups were conducted to identify the opinions and discourses about two applications of knowledge from nutritional (epi)genomics: a biotechnology (nutrigenetic testing) and a public awareness campaign (the "first thousand days of life" initiative). Our objective was to understand to what extent PN could lead to changes in eating practices as well as in the representations of food-health relationships within France, a country characterized by a strong commitment to commensality and a certain "nutritional relativism." Although discourses on nutritional genomics testify to a resistance to food medicalization, nutritional epigenomics appears as more performative because it introduces the question of transgenerational transmission, thus parental responsibility.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Genome-wide screening and analysis of imprinted genes in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) endosperm. Liu J, Li J, Liu HF, Fan SH, Singh S, Zhou XR, Hu ZY, Wang HZ, Hua W
DNA Res (Dec 2018)

Species-specific genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon leading to parent-of-origin-specific differential expression of maternally and paternally inherited alleles. To date, no studies of imprinting have been reported in rapeseed, a tetraploid species. Here, we analysed global patterns of allelic gene expression in developing rapeseed endosperms from reciprocal crosses between inbred lines YN171 and 93275. A total of 183 imprinted genes, consisting of 167 maternal expressed genes (MEGs) and 16 paternal expressed genes (PEGs), were identified from 14,394 genes found to harbour diagnostic SNPs between the parental lines. Some imprinted genes were validated in different endosperm stages and other parental combinations by RT-PCR analysis. A clear clustering of imprinted genes throughout the rapeseed genome was identified, which was different from most other plants. Methylation analysis of 104 out of the 183 imprinted genes showed that 11 genes (7 MEGs and 4 PEGs) harboured differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Unexpectedly, only 1 MEG out of these 11 genes had a DMR that exhibited high CG methylation rate in paternal allele and had big difference between parent alleles. These results extend our understanding of gene imprinting in plants and provide potential avenues for further research in imprinted genes.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Analysis of the Paternally-Imprinted DLK1-MEG3 and IGF2-H19 Tandem Gene Loci in NT2 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells Identifies DLK1 as a Potential Therapeutic Target. Sellers ZP, Schneider G, Maj M, Ratajczak MZ
Stem Cell Rev (Dec 2018)

The paternally-imprinted genes insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), H19, delta-like homologue 1 (DLK1), and maternally-expressed gene 3 (MEG3) are expressed from the tandem gene loci IGF2-H19 and DLK1-MEG3, which play crucial roles in initiating embryogenesis and development. The erasure of imprinting (EOI) at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) which regulate the expression of these genes maintains the developmental quiescence of primordial germ cells (PGCs) migrating through the embryo proper during embryogenesis and prevents them from forming teratomas. To address the potential involvement of the IGF2-H19 and DLK1-MEG3 loci in the pathogenesis of embryonal carcinoma (EC), we investigated their genomic imprinting at DMRs in the human PGC-derived EC cell line NTera-2 (NT2). We observed EOI at the IGF2-H19 locus and, somewhat to our surprise, a loss of imprinting (LOI) at the DLK1-MEG3 locus. As a result, NT2 cells express imprinted gene ratios from these loci such that there are i) low levels of the proliferation-promoting IGF2 relative to ii) high levels of the proliferation-inhibiting long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) H19 and iii) high levels of proliferation-promoting DLK1 relative to iv) low levels of the proliferation-inhibiting lncRNA MEG3. Consistent with this pattern of expression, the knockdown of DLK1 mRNA by shRNA resulted in decreased in vitro cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth as well as decreased in vivo organ seeding by NT2 cells. Furthermore, treatment of NT2 cells with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-azaD) inhibited their proliferation. This inhibition was accompanied by changes in expression of both tandem gene sets: a decrease in the expression of DLK1 and upregulation of the proliferation-inhibiting lncRNA MEG3, and at the same time upregulation of IGF2 and downregulation of the lncRNA H19. These results suggest that the DLK1-MEG3 locus, and not the IGF2-H19 locus, drives the tumorigenicity of NT2 cells. Based on these results, we identified DLK1 as a novel treatment target for EC that could be downregulated by 5-azaD.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST