'; ?> geneimprint : Hot off the Press http://www.geneimprint.com/site/hot-off-the-press Daily listing of the most recent articles in epigenetics and imprinting, collected from the PubMed database. en-us Fri, 29 May 2015 09:11:47 PDT Fri, 29 May 2015 09:11:47 PDT jirtle@radonc.duke.edu james001@jirtle.com Further evidence supporting a parent-of-origin effect in psoriatic disease. Pollock RA, Thavaneswaran A, Pellett F, Chandran V, Petronis A, Rahman P, Gladman DD
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) (May 2015)

To further explore the 'parent-of-origin' effect in a large cohort of well phenotyped patients with cutaneous psoriasis without arthritis (PsC) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA).]]>
Thu, 28 May 2015 00:00:00 PDT
Visualizing epigenomic data. Marx V
Nat Methods (May 2015)

Epigenomics researchers are exploring new ways to visualize the many different types of genome marks.]]>
Thu, 28 May 2015 00:00:00 PDT
Folate- and vitamin B12-deficient diet during gestation and lactation alters cerebellar synapsin expression via impaired influence of estrogen nuclear receptor α. Pourié G, Martin N, Bossenmeyer-Pourié C, Akchiche N, Guéant-Rodriguez RM, Geoffroy A, Jeannesson E, Chehadeh SE, Mimoun K, Brachet P, Koziel V, Alberto JM, Helle D, Debard R, Leininger B, Daval JL, Guéant JL
FASEB J (May 2015)

Deficiency in the methyl donors vitamin B12 and folate during pregnancy and postnatal life impairs proper brain development. We studied the consequences of this combined deficiency on cerebellum plasticity in offspring from rat mothers subjected to deficient diet during gestation and lactation and in rat neuroprogenitor cells expressing cerebellum markers. The major proteomic change in cerebellum of 21-d-old deprived females was a 2.2-fold lower expression of synapsins, which was confirmed in neuroprogenitors cultivated in the deficient condition. A pathway analysis suggested that these proteomic changes were related to estrogen receptor α (ER-α)/Src tyrosine kinase. The influence of impaired ER-α pathway was confirmed by abnormal negative geotaxis test at d 19-20 and decreased phsophorylation of synapsins in deprived females treated by ER-α antagonist 1,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-[4-(2-piperidinylethoxy)phenol]-1H-pyrazole dihydrochloride (MPP). This effect was consistent with 2-fold decreased expression and methylation of ER-α and subsequent decreased ER-α/PPAR-γ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α) interaction in deficiency condition. The impaired ER-α pathway led to decreased expression of synapsins through 2-fold decreased EGR-1/Zif-268 transcription factor and to 1.7-fold reduced Src-dependent phosphorylation of synapsins. The treatment of neuroprogenitors with either MPP or PP1 (4-(4'-phenoxyanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, 6,7-dimethoxy-N-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-4-quinazolinamine, SKI-1, Src-l1) Src inhibitor produced similar effects. In conclusion, the deficiency during pregnancy and lactation impairs the expression of synapsins through a deregulation of ER-α pathway.-Pourié, G., Martin, N., Bossenmeyer-Pourié, C., Akchiche, N., Guéant-Rodriguez, R. M., Geoffroy, A., Jeannesson, E., El Hajj Chehadeh, S., Mimoun, K., Brachet, P., Koziel, V., Alberto, J.-M., Helle, D., Debard, R., Leininger, B., Daval, J.-L., Guéant, J.-L. Folate- and vitamin B12-deficient diet during gestation and lactation alters cerebellar synapsin expression via impaired influence of estrogen nuclear receptor α.]]>
Thu, 28 May 2015 00:00:00 PDT
Genomic imprinting: A missing piece of the Multiple Sclerosis puzzle? Ruhrmann S, Stridh P, Kular L, Jagodic M
Int J Biochem Cell Biol (May 2015)

Evidence for parent-of-origin effects in complex diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) strongly suggests a role for epigenetic mechanisms in their pathogenesis. In this review, we describe the importance of accounting for parent-of-origin when identifying new risk variants for complex diseases and discuss how genomic imprinting, one of the best-characterized epigenetic mechanisms causing parent-of-origin effects, may impact etiology of complex diseases. While the role of imprinted genes in growth and development is well established, the contribution and molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of genomic imprinting in immune functions and inflammatory diseases are still largely unknown. Here we discuss emerging roles of imprinted genes in the regulation of inflammatory responses with a particular focus on the Dlk1 cluster that has been implicated in etiology of experimental MS-like disease and Type 1 Diabetes. Moreover, we speculate on the potential wider impact of imprinting via the action of imprinted microRNAs, which are abundantly present in the Dlk1 locus and predicted to fine-tune important immune functions. Finally, we reflect on how unrelated imprinted genes or imprinted genes together with non-imprinted genes can interact in so-called imprinted gene networks (IGN) and suggest that IGNs could partly explain observed parent-of-origin effects in complex diseases. Unveiling the mechanisms of parent-of-origin effects is therefore likely to teach us not only about the etiology of complex diseases but also about the unknown roles of this fascinating phenomenon underlying uneven genetic contribution from our parents. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Epigenetics dynamics in development and disease.]]>
Wed, 27 May 2015 00:00:00 PDT
HIF3A association with adiposity: the story begins before birth. Pan H, Lin X, Wu Y, Chen L, Teh AL, Soh SE, Lee YS, Tint MT, MacIsaac JL, Morin AM, Tan KH, Yap F, Saw SM, Kobor MS, Meaney MJ, Godfrey KM, Chong YS, Gluckman PD, Karnani N, Holbrook JD,  
Epigenomics (May 2015)

Determine if the association of HIF3A DNA methylation with weight and adiposity is detectable early in life.]]>
Tue, 26 May 2015 00:00:00 PDT
Epigenomic k-mer dictionaries: shedding light on how sequence composition influences in vivo nucleosome positioning. Giancarlo R, Rombo SE, Utro F
Bioinformatics (May 2015)

Information-theoretic and compositional analysis of biological sequences, in terms of k-mer dictionaries, has a well established role in genomic and proteomic studies. Much less so in epigenomics, although the role of k-mers in chromatin organization and nucleosome positioning is particularly relevant. Fundamental questions concerning the informational content and compositional structure of nucleosome favouring and disfavoring sequences with respect to their basic building blocks still remain open.]]>
Tue, 26 May 2015 00:00:00 PDT
Long noncoding RNAs: Lessons from Genomic imprinting. Kanduri C
Biochim Biophys Acta (May 2015)

Genomic imprinting has been a great resource for studying transcriptional and post-transcriptional-based gene regulation by long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). In this article, I overview the functional role of intergenic lncRNAs (H19, IPW and MEG3), antisense lncRNAs (Kcnq1ot1, Airn, Nespas, Ube3a-ATS) and enhancer lncRNAs (IG-DMR eRNAs) to understand the diverse mechanisms being employed by them in cis and/or trans to regulate the parent-of-origin-specific expression of target genes. Recent evidence suggests that some of the lncRNAs regulate imprinting by promoting intra-chromosomal higher order chromatin compartmentalisation, affecting replication timing and sub-nuclear positioning. Whereas others act via transcriptional occlusion or transcriptional collision-based mechanisms. By establishing genomic imprinting of target genes, the lncRNAs play a critical role in important biological functions, such as placental and embryonic growth, pluripotency maintenance, cell differentiation and neural related functions such as synaptic development and plasticity. An emerging consensus from the recent evidence is that the imprinted lncRNAs fine-tune gene expression of the protein coding genes to maintain their dosage in cell. Hence lncRNAs from imprinted clusters offer insights into their mode of action and these mechanisms have been the basis for uncovering the mode of action of lncRNAs in several other biological contexts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Clues to long noncoding RNA taxonomy1.]]>
Mon, 25 May 2015 00:00:00 PDT
Array-based DNA-methylation analysis in individuals with developmental delay/intellectual disability and normal molecular karyotype. Kolarova J, Tangen I, Bens S, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Gutwein J, Kautza M, Rydzanicz M, Stephani U, Siebert R, Ammerpohl O, Caliebe A
Eur J Med Genet (May 2015)

Despite recent progresses in molecular karyotyping and clinical sequencing the cause of intellectual disability in a considerable subset of individuals affected by this phenotype remains elusive. As intellectual disability is also a feature of various imprinting disorders and some monogenic forms of intellectual disability are caused by epigenetic modifiers we hypothesized that changes in DNA-methylation might be associated with or even causative in some cases of intellectual disability. Therefore, we performed a DNA-methylation analysis of peripheral blood samples from 82 patients with intellectual disability and additional features using the HumanMethylation450k BeadChip. The findings were compared to that of 19 normal controls. Differentially methylated loci were validated by bisulfite pyrosequencing. On a global level, we failed to detect a robust DNA-methylation signature segregating individuals with intellectual disability from controls. Using an individual approach, we identified 157 regions showing individual DNA-methylation changes in at least one patient. These correlated to 107 genes including genes linked to conditions associated with intellectual disability, namely COLEC11, SHANK2, GLI2 and KCNQ2, as well as imprinted genes like FAM50B and MEG3. The latter was suggestive of an undiagnosed Temple syndrome which could be confirmed by diagnostic tests. Subsequent in-depth analysis of imprinted loci revealed DNA-methylation changes at additional imprinted loci, i.e. PPIEL, IGF2R, MEG8 and MCTS2/HM13, in up to four patients. Our findings indicate that imprinting disorders are rare but probably under-diagnosed in patients with intellectual disability and moreover point to DNA-methylation changes as potential alternative means to identify deregulated genes involved in the pathogenesis of intellectual disability.]]>
Sun, 24 May 2015 00:00:00 PDT
Identification of diagnostic markers in colorectal cancer via integrative epigenomics and genomics data. Kok-Sin T, Mokhtar NM, Ali Hassan NZ, Sagap I, Mohamed Rose I, Harun R, Jamal R
Oncol Rep (May 2015)

Apart from genetic mutations, epigenetic alteration is a common phenomenon that contributes to neoplastic transformation in colorectal cancer. Transcriptional silencing of tumor‑suppressor genes without changes in the DNA sequence is explained by the existence of promoter hypermethylation. To test this hypothesis, we integrated the epigenome and transcriptome data from a similar set of colorectal tissue samples. Methylation profiling was performed using the Illumina InfiniumHumanMethylation27 BeadChip on 55 paired cancer and adjacent normal epithelial cells. Fifteen of the 55 paired tissues were used for gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST array. Validation was carried out on 150 colorectal tissues using the methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) technique. PCA and supervised hierarchical clustering in the two microarray datasets showed good separation between cancer and normal samples. Significant genes from the two analyses were obtained based on a ≥2‑fold change and a false discovery rate (FDR) p-value of <0.05. We identified 1,081 differentially hypermethylated CpG sites and 36 hypomethylated CpG sites. We also found 709 upregulated and 699 downregulated genes from the gene expression profiling. A comparison of the two datasets revealed 32 overlapping genes with 27 being hypermethylated with downregulated expression and 4 hypermethylated with upregulated expression. One gene was found to be hypomethylated and downregulated. The most enriched molecular pathway identified was cell adhesion molecules that involved 4 overlapped genes, JAM2, NCAM1, ITGA8 and CNTN1. In the present study, we successfully identified a group of genes that showed methylation and gene expression changes in well-defined colorectal cancer tissues with high purity. The integrated analysis gives additional insight regarding the regulation of colorectal cancer-associated genes and their underlying mechanisms that contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis.]]>
Fri, 22 May 2015 00:00:00 PDT
Endothelial epigenetics in biomechanical stress: disturbed flow-mediated epigenomic plasticity in vivo and in vitro. Jiang YZ, Manduchi E, Jiménez JM, Davies PF
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol (Jun 2015)

Arterial endothelial phenotype is regulated by local hemodynamic forces that are linked to regional susceptibility to atherogenesis. A complex hierarchy of transcriptional, translational, and post-translational mechanisms is greatly influenced by the characteristics of local arterial shear stress environments. We discuss the emerging role of localized disturbed blood flow on epigenetic mechanisms of endothelial responses to biomechanical stress, including transcriptional regulation by proximal promoter DNA methylation, and post-transcriptional and translational regulation of gene and protein expression by chromatin remodeling and noncoding RNA-based mechanisms. Dynamic responses to flow characteristics in vivo and in vitro include site-specific differentially methylated regions of swine and mouse endothelial methylomes, histone marks regulating chromatin conformation, microRNAs, and long noncoding RNAs. Flow-mediated epigenomic responses intersect with cis and trans factor regulation to maintain endothelial function in a shear-stressed environment and may contribute to localized endothelial dysfunctions that promote atherosusceptibility.]]>
Thu, 21 May 2015 00:00:00 PDT
Recent developments in epigenetics of acute and chronic kidney diseases. Reddy MA, Natarajan R
Kidney Int (May 2015)

The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes, the aging population as well as prevalence of drug abuse has led to significant increases in the rates of the closely associated acute and chronic kidney diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, evidence shows that parental behavior and diet can affect the phenotype of subsequent generations via epigenetic transmission mechanisms. These data suggest a strong influence of the environment on disease susceptibility and that, apart from genetic susceptibility, epigenetic mechanisms need to be evaluated to gain critical new information about kidney diseases. Epigenetics is the study of processes that control gene expression and phenotype without alterations in the underlying DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications, including cytosine DNA methylation and covalent post-translational modifications of histones in chromatin, are part of the epigenome, the interface between the stable genome and the variable environment. This dynamic epigenetic layer responds to external environmental cues to influence the expression of genes associated with disease states. The field of epigenetics has seen remarkable growth in the past few years with significant advances in basic biology, contributions to human disease, as well as epigenomics technologies. Further understanding of how the renal cell epigenome is altered by metabolic and other stimuli can yield novel new insights into the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. In this review, we have discussed the current knowledge on the role of epigenetic mechanisms (primarily DNAme and histone modifications) in acute and chronic kidney diseases, and their translational potential to identify much needed new therapies.Kidney International advance online publication, 20 May 2015; doi:10.1038/ki.2015.148.]]>
Wed, 20 May 2015 00:00:00 PDT
DNA methylation and epigenomics: new technologies and emerging concepts. Chatterjee A, Eccles MR
Genome Biol (2015)

A report of the Keystone Symposia joint meetings on DNA Methylation and Epigenomics held in Keystone, Colorado, USA, 29 March to 3 April, 2015.]]>
Wed, 20 May 2015 00:00:00 PDT
Current trend of annotating single nucleotide variation in humans - A case study on SNVrap. Li MJ, Wang J
Methods (Jun 2015)

As high throughput methods, such as whole genome genotyping arrays, whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS), have detected huge amounts of genetic variants associated with human diseases, function annotation of these variants is an indispensable step in understanding disease etiology. Large-scale functional genomics projects, such as The ENCODE Project and Roadmap Epigenomics Project, provide genome-wide profiling of functional elements across different human cell types and tissues. With the urgent demands for identification of disease-causal variants, comprehensive and easy-to-use annotation tool is highly in demand. Here we review and discuss current progress and trend of the variant annotation field. Furthermore, we introduce a comprehensive web portal for annotating human genetic variants. We use gene-based features and the latest functional genomics datasets to annotate single nucleotide variation (SNVs) in human, at whole genome scale. We further apply several function prediction algorithms to annotate SNVs that might affect different biological processes, including transcriptional gene regulation, alternative splicing, post-transcriptional regulation, translation and post-translational modifications. The SNVrap web portal is freely available at http://jjwanglab.org/snvrap.]]>
Mon, 18 May 2015 00:00:00 PDT
Aberrant methylation of imprinted genes is associated with negative hormone receptor status in invasive breast cancer. Barrow TM, Barault L, Ellsworth RE, Harris HR, Binder AM, Valente AL, Shriver CD, Michels KB
Int J Cancer (Aug 2015)

Epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes enables monoallelic expression according to parental origin, and its disruption is implicated in many cancers and developmental disorders. The expression of hormone receptors is significant in breast cancer because they are indicators of cancer cell growth rate and determine response to endocrine therapies. We investigated the frequency of aberrant events and variation in DNA methylation at nine imprinted sites in invasive breast cancer and examined the association with estrogen and progesterone receptor status. Breast tissue and blood from patients with invasive breast cancer (n = 38) and benign breast disease (n = 30) were compared with those from healthy individuals (n = 36), matched with the cancer patients by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, body mass index, menopausal status and familial history of cancer. DNA methylation and allele-specific expression were analyzed by pyrosequencing. Tumor-specific methylation changes at IGF2 DMR2 were observed in 59% of cancer patients, IGF2 DMR0 in 38%, DIRAS3 DMR in 36%, GRB10 ICR in 23%, PEG3 DMR in 21%, MEST ICR in 19%, H19 ICR in 18%, KvDMR in 8% and SNRPN/SNURF ICR in 4%. Variation in methylation was significantly greater in breast tissue from cancer patients compared with that in healthy individuals and benign breast disease. Aberrant methylation of three or more sites was significantly associated with negative estrogen-alpha (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.02) and progesterone-A (p = 0.02) receptor status. Aberrant events and increased variation in imprinted gene DNA methylation, therefore, seem to be frequent in invasive breast cancer and are associated with negative estrogen and progesterone receptor status, without loss of monoallelic expression.]]>
Mon, 18 May 2015 00:00:00 PDT
Pyrosequencing for accurate imprinted allele expression analysis. Yang B, Damaschke N, Yao T, McCormick J, Wagner J, Jarrard D
J Cell Biochem (Jul 2015)

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism that restricts gene expression to one inherited allele. Improper maintenance of imprinting has been implicated in a number of human diseases and developmental syndromes. Assays are needed that can quantify the contribution of each paternal allele to a gene expression profile. We have developed a rapid, sensitive quantitative assay for the measurement of individual allelic ratios termed Pyrosequencing for Imprinted Expression (PIE). Advantages of PIE over other approaches include shorter experimental time, decreased labor, avoiding the need for restriction endonuclease enzymes at polymorphic sites, and prevent heteroduplex formation which is problematic in quantitative PCR-based methods. We demonstrate the improved sensitivity of PIE including the ability to detect differences in allelic expression down to 1%. The assay is capable of measuring genomic heterozygosity as well as imprinting in a single run. PIE is applied to determine the status of Insulin-like Growth Factor-2 (IGF2) imprinting in human and mouse tissues. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 1165-1170, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.]]>
Wed, 13 May 2015 00:00:00 PDT
Proteogenomics of the human hippocampus: The road ahead. Kang MG, Byun K, Kim JH, Park NH, Heinsen H, Ravid R, Steinbusch HW, Lee B, Park YM
Biochim Biophys Acta (Jul 2015)

The hippocampus is one of the most essential components of the human brain and plays an important role in learning and memory. The hippocampus has drawn great attention from scientists and clinicians due to its clinical importance in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), non-AD dementia, and epilepsy. Understanding the function of the hippocampus and related disease mechanisms requires comprehensive knowledge of the orchestration of the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins. The past decade has seen remarkable advances in the high-throughput sequencing techniques that are collectively called next generation sequencing (NGS). NGS enables the precise analysis of gene expression profiles in cells and tissues, allowing powerful and more feasible integration of expression data from the gene level to the protein level, even allowing "-omic" level assessment of PTMs. In addition, improved bioinformatics algorithms coupled with NGS technology are finally opening a new era for scientists to discover previously unidentified and elusive proteins. In the present review, we will focus mainly on the proteomics of the human hippocampus with an emphasis on the integrated analysis of genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. Finally, we will discuss our perspectives on the potential and future of proteomics in the field of hippocampal biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroproteomics: Applications in Neuroscience and Neurology.]]>
Sat, 09 May 2015 00:00:00 PDT
First trimester vitamin D status and placental epigenomics in preeclampsia among Northern Plains primiparas. Anderson CM, Ralph JL, Johnson L, Scheett A, Wright ML, Taylor JY, Ohm JE, Uthus E
Life Sci (May 2015)

As maternal vitamin D status has been associated with preeclampsia, the purpose of this study was to determine variations in DNA methylation patterns and associated protein expression in placental genes regulating vitamin D metabolism.]]>
Wed, 29 Apr 2015 00:00:00 PDT
Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease. Delbridge LM, Mellor KM, Wold LE
Life Sci (May 2015)

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Wed, 29 Apr 2015 00:00:00 PDT
Molecular mechanisms of ethanol-associated oro-esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Liu Y, Chen H, Sun Z, Chen X
Cancer Lett (Jun 2015)

Alcohol drinking is a major etiological factor of oro-esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OESCC). Both local and systemic effects of ethanol may promote carcinogenesis, especially among chronic alcoholics. However, molecular mechanisms of ethanol-associated OESCC are still not well understood. In this review, we summarize current understandings and propose three mechanisms of ethanol-associated OESCC: (1) Disturbance of systemic metabolism of nutrients: during ethanol metabolism in the liver, systemic metabolism of retinoids, zinc, iron and methyl groups is altered. These nutrients are known to be associated with the development of OESCC. (2) Disturbance of redox metabolism in squamous epithelial cells: when ethanol is metabolized in oro-esophageal squamous epithelial cells, reactive oxygen species are generated and produce oxidative damage. Meanwhile, ethanol may also disturb fatty-acid metabolism in these cells. (3) Disturbance of signaling pathways in squamous epithelial cells: due to its physico-chemical properties, ethanol changes cell membrane fluidity and shape, and may thus impact multiple signaling pathways. Advanced molecular techniques in genomics, epigenomics, metabolomics and microbiomics will help us elucidate how ethanol promotes OESCC.]]>
Sat, 04 Apr 2015 00:00:00 PDT
Activation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling mediates resistance to histone deacetylase inhibitors. Kim JS, Lee SC, Min HY, Park KH, Hyun SY, Kwon SJ, Choi SP, Kim WY, Lee HJ, Lee HY
Cancer Lett (Jun 2015)

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are considered promising targets in the treatment of hematologic malignancies and several types of solid tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the efficacy of HDAC inhibitors in solid tumors is marginal, and the mechanisms underlying resistance to HDAC inhibitors are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate the involvement of type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) signaling in resistance to HDAC inhibitors in NSCLC. Using MTT and soft-agar colony formation assays, we selected NSCLC cell lines that exhibited intrinsic resistance to vorinostat. Treatment with vorinostat activated IGF-1R signaling in vorinostat-resistant but not vorinostat-sensitive NSCLC cells. Other HDAC inhibitors, including trichostatin A, sodium butyrate, and depsipeptide, also activated IGF-1R signaling in vorinostat-resistant NSCLC cells. Blockade of IGF-1R signaling via IGF-1R monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or through knockdown of IGF-1R via RNA interference sensitized vorinostat-resistant cells to HDAC inhibition. Finally, IGF-1R mAbs sensitized xenograft tumors of vorinostat-resistant cells to vorinostat treatment in vivo. These findings suggest that IGF-1R activation is generally involved in resistance to HDAC inhibitors and that targeting IGF-1R is an effective strategy for overcoming resistance to HDAC inhibitors in NSCLC.]]>
Sat, 04 Apr 2015 00:00:00 PDT