'; ?> geneimprint : Hot off the Press http://www.geneimprint.com/site/hot-off-the-press Daily listing of the most recent articles in epigenetics and imprinting, collected from the PubMed database. en-us Wed, 17 Dec 2014 05:26:40 PST Wed, 17 Dec 2014 05:26:40 PST jirtle@radonc.duke.edu james001@jirtle.com Toward a road map for global -omics: a primer on -omic technologies. Coughlin SS
Am J Epidemiol (Dec 2014)

As highlighted in a recent editorial in the Journal (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(2):127-128), the research area of "-omics" includes genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and nascent fields of scientific inquiry such as epigenomics and exposomics. These fields can be collectively referred to as "global -omics." Increasing efforts have been made over the past 2 decades to identify and modify environmental risk factors among persons who are susceptible to disease because of their genotype and to integrate genetic information and other biological variables with information about individual-level risk factors and group-level or societal factors related to the broader residential, behavioral, or cultural context. In genome-wide association studies, only a small proportion of heritability is explained by genetic variants identified to date, which has prompted researchers in bioinformatics and biostatistics to take into account nonlinear relationships due to gene-environment or gene-gene interactions. The exposome, which is dynamic and variable, consists of all of the internal and external exposures an individual incurs over a lifetime. Both the epigenome and exposome change with age. The prenatal and perinatal periods are thought to be important times for epigenetic marking. Once the human epigenome has been fully mapped, identification of the effects of all deleterious environmental exposures according to duration of exposure and time period will be a complex undertaking, requiring collaborative epidemiologic studies.]]>
Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:00:00 PST
TET proteins and 5-methylcytosine oxidation in hematological cancers. Ko M, An J, Pastor WA, Koralov SB, Rajewsky K, Rao A
Immunol Rev (Jan 2015)

DNA methylation has pivotal regulatory roles in mammalian development, retrotransposon silencing, genomic imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation. Cancer cells display highly dysregulated DNA methylation profiles characterized by global hypomethylation in conjunction with hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands that presumably lead to genome instability and aberrant expression of tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. The recent discovery of ten-eleven-translocation (TET) family dioxygenases that oxidize 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) in DNA has led to profound progress in understanding the mechanism underlying DNA demethylation. Among the three TET genes, TET2 recurrently undergoes inactivating mutations in a wide range of myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. TET2 functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor particularly in the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies resembling chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in human. Here we review diverse functions of TET proteins and the novel epigenetic marks that they generate in DNA methylation/demethylation dynamics and normal and malignant hematopoietic differentiation. The impact of TET2 inactivation in hematopoiesis and various mechanisms modulating the expression or activity of TET proteins are also discussed. Furthermore, we also present evidence that TET2 and TET3 collaborate to suppress aberrant hematopoiesis and hematopoietic transformation. A detailed understanding of the normal and pathological functions of TET proteins may provide new avenues to develop novel epigenetic therapies for treating hematological malignancies.]]>
Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:00:00 PST
DNA methylation dynamics of a maternally methylated DMR in the mouse Dlk1-Dio3 domain. Zeng TB, He HJ, Han ZB, Zhang FW, Huang ZJ, Liu Q, Cui W, Wu Q
FEBS Lett (Dec 2014)

The mouse delta-like homolog 1 and type III iodothyronine deiodinase (Dlk1-Dio3) imprinted domain contains three known paternally methylated differentially methylated regions (DMRs): intergenic DMR (IG-DMR), maternally expressed 3-DMR (Gtl2-DMR), and Dlk1-DMR. Here, we report the first maternally methylated DMR, CpG island 2 (CGI-2), is located approximately 800bp downstream of miR-1188. CGI-2 is highly methylated in sperm and oocytes, de-methylated in pre-implantation embryos, and differentially re-methylated during post-implantation development. CGI-2, similarly to Gtl2-DMR and Dlk1-DMR, acquires differential methylation prior to embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5). Both H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 histone modifications are enriched at CGI-2. Furthermore, CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) binds to both alleles of CGI-2 in vivo. These results contribute to the investigation of imprinting regulation in this domain.]]>
Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:00:00 PST
An integrated epigenomic analysis for type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci in monozygotic twins. Yuan W, Xia Y, Bell CG, Yet I, Ferreira T, Ward KJ, Gao F, Loomis AK, Hyde CL, Wu H, Lu H, Liu Y, Small KS, Viñuela A, Morris AP, Berdasco M, Esteller M, Brosnan MJ, Deloukas P, McCarthy MI, John SL, Bell JT, Wang J, Spector TD
Nat Commun (2014)

DNA methylation has a great potential for understanding the aetiology of common complex traits such as Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we perform genome-wide methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq) in whole-blood-derived DNA from 27 monozygotic twin pairs and follow up results with replication and integrated omics analyses. We identify predominately hypermethylated T2D-related differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and replicate the top signals in 42 unrelated T2D cases and 221 controls. The strongest signal is in the promoter of the MALT1 gene, involved in insulin and glycaemic pathways, and related to taurocholate levels in blood. Integrating the DNA methylome findings with T2D GWAS meta-analysis results reveals a strong enrichment for DMRs in T2D-susceptibility loci. We also detect signals specific to T2D-discordant twins in the GPR61 and PRKCB genes. These replicated T2D associations reflect both likely causal and consequential pathways of the disease. The analysis indicates how an integrated genomics and epigenomics approach, utilizing an MZ twin design, can provide pathogenic insights as well as potential drug targets and biomarkers for T2D and other complex traits.]]>
Mon, 15 Dec 2014 00:00:00 PST
Application of Proteomic Tools in Modern Nanotechnological Approaches Towards Effective Management of Neurodegenerative Disorders. Ali A, Sheikh IA, Mirza Z, Gan SH, Kamal MA, Abuzenadah AM, A Chaudhary AG, Damanhouri GA, Ashraf GM
Curr Drug Metab (Dec 2014)

Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons leading to neuronal death, usually associated with ageing. Some of the common neurodegenerative disorders include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and Huntington's disease. Due to recent advancements in high-throughput technologies in various disciplines such as genomics, epigenomics, metabolomics and proteomics, there has been a great demand for detection of specific macromolecules such as hormones, drug residues, miRNA, DNA, antibodies, peptides, proteins, pathogens and xenobiotics at nano-level concentrations for in-depth understanding of disease mechanisms as well as for the development of new therapeutic strategies. The present review focuses on the management of age-related neurodegenerative disorders using proteomics and nanotechnological approaches. In addition, this review also highlights the metabolism and disposition of nano-drugs and nano-enabled drug delivery in neurodegenerative disorders.]]>
Mon, 15 Dec 2014 00:00:00 PST
Epigenomics in translational research. Replogle JM, De Jager PL
Transl Res (Jan 2015)

Mon, 08 Dec 2014 00:00:00 PST
An integrative analysis reveals coordinated reprogramming of the epigenome and the transcriptome in human skeletal muscle after training. Lindholm ME, Marabita F, Gomez-Cabrero D, Rundqvist H, Ekström TJ, Tegnér J, Sundberg CJ
Epigenetics (Dec 2014)

ABSTRACT Regular endurance exercise training induces beneficial functional and health effects in human skeletal muscle. The putative contribution to the training response of the epigenome as a mediator between genes and environment has not been clarified. Here we investigated the contribution of DNA methylation and associated transcriptomic changes in a well-controlled human intervention study. Training effects were mirrored by significant alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression in regions with a homogeneous muscle energetics and remodeling ontology. Moreover, a signature of DNA methylation and gene expression separated the samples based on training and gender. Differential DNA methylation was predominantly observed in enhancers, gene bodies and intergenic regions and less in CpG islands or promoters. We identified transcriptional regulator binding motifs of MRF, MEF2 and ETS proteins in the proximity of the changing sites. A transcriptional network analysis revealed modules harboring distinct ontologies and, interestingly, the overall direction of the changes of methylation within each module was inversely correlated to expression changes. In conclusion, we show that highly consistent and associated modifications in methylation and expression, concordant with observed health-enhancing phenotypic adaptations, are induced by a physiological stimulus.]]>
Mon, 08 Dec 2014 00:00:00 PST
Epigenetic mechanisms in diabetic complications and metabolic memory. Reddy MA, Zhang E, Natarajan R
Diabetologia (Dec 2014)

The incidence of diabetes and its associated micro- and macrovascular complications is greatly increasing worldwide. The most prevalent vascular complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes include nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and cardiovascular diseases. Evidence suggests that both genetic and environmental factors are involved in these pathologies. Clinical trials have underscored the beneficial effects of intensive glycaemic control for preventing the progression of complications. Accumulating evidence suggests a key role for epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications in chromatin, and non-coding RNAs in the complex interplay between genes and the environment. Factors associated with the pathology of diabetic complications, including hyperglycaemia, growth factors, oxidant stress and inflammatory factors can lead to dysregulation of these epigenetic mechanisms to alter the expression of pathological genes in target cells such as endothelial, vascular smooth muscle, retinal and cardiac cells, without changes in the underlying DNA sequence. Furthermore, long-term persistence of these alterations to the epigenome may be a key mechanism underlying the phenomenon of 'metabolic memory' and sustained vascular dysfunction despite attainment of glycaemic control. Current therapies for most diabetic complications have not been fully efficacious, and hence a study of epigenetic mechanisms that may be involved is clearly warranted as they can not only shed novel new insights into the pathology of diabetic complications, but also lead to the identification of much needed new drug targets. In this review, we highlight the emerging role of epigenetics and epigenomics in the vascular complications of diabetes and metabolic memory.]]>
Sun, 07 Dec 2014 00:00:00 PST
Epigenomics of Alzheimer's disease. Bennett DA, Yu L, Yang J, Srivastava GP, Aubin C, De Jager PL
Transl Res (Jan 2015)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a large and growing public health problem. It is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid β peptides and abnormally phosphorylated tau proteins that are associated with cognitive decline and dementia. Much has been learned about the genomics of AD from linkage analyses and, more recently, genome-wide association studies. Several but not all aspects of the genomic landscape are involved in amyloid β metabolism. The moderate concordance of disease among twins suggests other factors, potentially epigenomic factors, are related to AD. We are at the earliest stages of examining the relation of the epigenome to the clinical and pathologic phenotypes that characterize AD. Our literature review suggests that there is some evidence of age-related changes in human brain methylation. Unfortunately, studies of AD have been relatively small with limited coverage of methylation sites and microRNA, let alone other epigenomic marks. We are in the midst of 2 large studies of human brains including coverage of more than 420,000 autosomal cytosine-guanine dinucleotides with the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadArray, and histone acetylation with chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing. We present descriptive data to help inform other researchers what to expect from these approaches to better design and power their studies. We then discuss future directions to inform on the epigenomic architecture of AD.]]>
Sun, 07 Dec 2014 00:00:00 PST
Expanding Epigenomics to Archived FFPE Tissues: An Evaluation of DNA Repair Methodologies. Siegel EM, Berglund AE, Riggs BM, Eschrich SA, Putney RM, Ajidahun AO, Coppola D, Shibata D
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev (Dec 2014)

Epigenome-wide association studies are emerging in the field of cancer epidemiology with the rapid development of large-scale methylation array platforms. Until recently, these methods were only valid for DNA from flash frozen (FF) tissues. Novel techniques for repairing DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues have emerged; however, a direct comparison of FFPE DNA repair methods before analysis on genome-wide methylation array to matched FF tissues has not been conducted.]]>
Thu, 04 Dec 2014 00:00:00 PST
Analysis of methylation microarray for tissue specific detection. Muangsub T, Samsuwan J, Tongyoo P, Kitkumthorn N, Mutirangura A
Gene (Dec 2014)

The role of human DNA methylation has been extensively studied in genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, and disease. However, studies of tissue-specific methylation remain limited. In this study, we use bioinformatics methods to analyze methylation data and reveal loci that are exclusively methylated or unmethylated in individual tissues. We collect 39 previously published DNA methylation profiles using an Illumina® HumanMethylation 27 BeadChip Kit containing 22 common tissues and involving 27,578 CpG loci across the human genome. We found 86 positions of tissue specific methylation CpG (TSM) that encompass 34 hypermethylated TSMs (31 genes) and 52 hypomethylated TSMs (47 genes). Tissues were found to contain 1 to 25 TSM loci, with the majority in the liver (25), testis (18), and brain (16). Fewer TSM loci were found in the muscle (8), ovary (7), adrenal gland (3), pancreas (2-4), kidney, spleen, and stomach (1 each). TSMs are predominantly located 0-300 base pairs in the 3' direction after the transcription start site. Similar to known promoters of methylation, hypermethylated TSM genes suppress transcription, while hypomethylated TSMs allow gene transcription. The majority of hypermethylated TSM genes encode membrane proteins and receptors, while hypomethylated TSM genes primarily encode signal peptides and tissue-specific proteins. In summary, the database of TSM loci produced herein is useful for the selection of tissue-specific DNA markers as diagnostic tools, as well as for the further study of the mechanisms and roles of TSM.]]>
Tue, 02 Dec 2014 00:00:00 PST
Imprinting analysis of the mouse chromosome 7C region in DNMT1-null embryos. Nakagaki A, Osanai H, Kishino T
Gene (Dec 2014)

The mouse chromosome 7C, orthologous to the human 15q11-q13 has an imprinted domain, where most of the genes are expressed only from the paternal allele. The imprinted domain contains paternally expressed genes, Snurf/Snrpn, Ndn, Magel2, Mkrn3, and Frat3, C/D-box small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), and the maternally expressed gene, Ube3a. Imprinted expression in this large (approximately 3-4Mb) domain is coordinated by a bipartite cis-acting imprinting center (IC), located upstream of the Snurf/Snrpn gene. The molecular mechanism how IC regulates gene expression of the whole domain remains partially understood. Here we analyzed the relationship between imprinted gene expression and DNA methylation in the mouse chromosome 7C using DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1)-null mutant embryos carrying Dnmt1(ps) alleles, which show global loss of DNA methylation and embryonic lethality. In the DNMT1-null embryos at embryonic day 9.5, the paternally expressed genes were biallelically expressed. Bisulfite DNA methylation analysis revealed loss of methylation on the maternal allele in the promoter regions of the genes. These results demonstrate that DNMT1 is necessary for monoallelic expression of the imprinted genes in the chromosome 7C domain, suggesting that DNA methylation in the secondary differentially methylated regions (DMRs), which are acquired during development serves primarily to control the imprinted expression from the maternal allele in the mouse chromosome 7C.]]>
Tue, 02 Dec 2014 00:00:00 PST
Genetic differentiation of hypothalamus parentally biased transcripts in populations of the house mouse implicate the prader-willi syndrome imprinted region as a possible source of behavioral divergence. Lorenc A, Linnenbrink M, Montero I, Schilhabel MB, Tautz D
Mol Biol Evol (Dec 2014)

Parentally biased expression of transcripts (genomic imprinting) in adult tissues, including the brain, can influence and possibly drive the evolution of behavioral traits. We have previously found that paternally determined cues are involved in population-specific mate choice decisions between two populations of the Western house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus). Here, we ask whether this could be mediated by genomically imprinted transcripts that are subject to fast differentiation between these populations. We focus on three organs that are of special relevance for mate choice and behavior: The vomeronasal organ (VNO), the hypothalamus, and the liver. To first identify candidate transcripts at a genome-wide scale, we used reciprocal crosses between M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus inbred strains and RNA sequencing of the respective tissues. Using a false discovery cutoff derived from mock reciprocal cross comparisons, we find a total of 66 imprinted transcripts, 13 of which have previously not been described as imprinted. The largest number of imprinted transcripts were found in the hypothalamus; fewer were found in the VNO, and the least were found in the liver. To assess molecular differentiation and imprinting in the wild-derived M. m. domesticus populations, we sequenced the RNA of the hypothalamus from individuals of these populations. This confirmed the presence of the above identified transcripts also in wild populations and allowed us to search for those that show a high genetic differentiation between these populations. Our results identify the Ube3a-Snrpn imprinted region on chromosome 7 as a region that encompasses the largest number of previously not described transcripts with paternal expression bias, several of which are at the same time highly differentiated. For four of these, we confirmed their imprinting status via single nucleotide polymorphism-specific pyrosequencing assays with RNA from reciprocal crosses. In addition, we find the paternally expressed Peg13 transcript within the Trappc9 gene region on chromosome 15 to be highly differentiated. Interestingly, both regions have been implicated in Prader-Willi nervous system disorder phenotypes in humans. We suggest that these genomically imprinted regions are candidates for influencing the population-specific mate-choice in mice.]]>
Fri, 28 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
The Influences of Genetic and Environmental Factors on Methylome-wide Association Studies for Human Diseases. Sun YV
Curr Genet Med Rep (Dec 2014)

DNA methylation (DNAm) is an essential epigenetic mechanism for normal development, and its variation may be associated with diseases. High-throughput technology allows robust measurement of DNA methylome in population studies. Methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) scan DNA methylome to detect new epigenetic loci affecting disease susceptibility. MWAS is an emerging approach to unraveling the mechanism linking genetics, environment, and human diseases. Here I review the recent studies of genetic determinants and environmental modifiers of DNAm, and the concept for partitioning genetic and environmental contribution to DNAm. These studies establish the correlation maps between genome and methylome, and enable the interpretation of epigenetic association with disease traits. Recent findings suggested that MWAS was a promising genomic method to identify epigenetic predictors accounting for unexplained disease risk. However, new study designs, analytical methods and shared resources need to be implemented to address the limitations and challenges in future epigenomic epidemiologic studies.]]>
Tue, 25 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Community Resources and Technologies Developed Through the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Program. Satterlee JS, Beckel-Mitchener A, McAllister K, Procaccini DC, Rutter JL, Tyson FL, Chadwick LH
Methods Mol Biol (2015)

This chapter describes resources and technologies generated by the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Program that may be useful to epigenomics researchers investigating a variety of diseases including cancer. Highlights include reference epigenome maps for a wide variety of human cells and tissues, the development of new technologies for epigenetic assays and imaging, the identification of novel epigenetic modifications, and an improved understanding of the role of epigenetic processes in a diversity of human diseases. We also discuss future needs in this area including exploration of epigenomic variation between individuals, single-cell epigenomics, environmental epigenomics, exploration of the use of surrogate tissues, and improved technologies for epigenome manipulation.]]>
Tue, 25 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Gene-Lifestyle Interactions in Complex Diseases: Design and Description of the GLACIER and VIKING Studies. Kurbasic A, Poveda A, Chen Y, Agren A, Engberg E, Hu FB, Johansson I, Barroso I, Brändström A, Hallmans G, Renström F, Franks PW
Curr Nutr Rep (Dec 2014)

Most complex diseases have well-established genetic and non-genetic risk factors. In some instances, these risk factors are likely to interact, whereby their joint effects convey a level of risk that is either significantly more or less than the sum of these risks. Characterizing these gene-environment interactions may help elucidate the biology of complex diseases, as well as to guide strategies for their targeted prevention. In most cases, the detection of gene-environment interactions will require sample sizes in excess of those needed to detect the marginal effects of the genetic and environmental risk factors. Although many consortia have been formed, comprising multiple diverse cohorts to detect gene-environment interactions, few robust examples of such interactions have been discovered. This may be because combining data across studies, usually through meta-analysis of summary data from the contributing cohorts, is often a statistically inefficient approach for the detection of gene-environment interactions. Ideally, single, very large and well-genotyped prospective cohorts, with validated measures of environmental risk factor and disease outcomes should be used to study interactions. The presence of strong founder effects within those cohorts might further strengthen the capacity to detect novel genetic effects and gene-environment interactions. Access to accurate genealogical data would also aid in studying the diploid nature of the human genome, such as genomic imprinting (parent-of-origin effects). Here we describe two studies from northern Sweden (the GLACIER and VIKING studies) that fulfill these characteristics.]]>
Fri, 14 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Mating ecology explains patterns of genome elimination. Gardner A, Ross L
Ecol Lett (Dec 2014)

Genome elimination - whereby an individual discards chromosomes inherited from one parent, and transmits only those inherited from the other parent - is found across thousands of animal species. It is more common in association with inbreeding, under male heterogamety, in males, and in the form of paternal genome elimination. However, the reasons for this broad pattern remain unclear. We develop a mathematical model to determine how degree of inbreeding, sex determination, genomic location, pattern of gene expression and parental origin of the eliminated genome interact to determine the fate of genome-elimination alleles. We find that: inbreeding promotes paternal genome elimination in the heterogametic sex; this may incur population extinction under female heterogamety, owing to eradication of males; and extinction is averted under male heterogamety, owing to countervailing sex-ratio selection. Thus, we explain the observed pattern of genome elimination. Our results highlight the interaction between mating system, sex-ratio selection and intragenomic conflict.]]>
Fri, 14 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Altered gene expression in human placentas after IVF/ICSI. Nelissen EC, Dumoulin JC, Busato F, Ponger L, Eijssen LM, Evers JL, Tost J, van Montfoort AP
Hum Reprod (Dec 2014)

Is gene expression in placental tissue of IVF/ICSI patients altered when compared with a spontaneously conceived group, and are these alterations due to loss of imprinting (LOI) in the case of imprinted genes?]]>
Wed, 12 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Stability of XIST repression in relation to genomic imprinting following global genome demethylation in a human cell line. de Araújo ES, Vasques LR, Stabellini R, Krepischi AC, Pereira LV
Braz J Med Biol Res (Dec 2014)

DNA methylation is essential in X chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting, maintaining repression of XIST in the active X chromosome and monoallelic repression of imprinted genes. Disruption of the DNA methyltransferase genes DNMT1 and DNMT3B in the HCT116 cell line (DKO cells) leads to global DNA hypomethylation and biallelic expression of the imprinted gene IGF2 but does not lead to reactivation of XIST expression, suggesting that XIST repression is due to a more stable epigenetic mark than imprinting. To test this hypothesis, we induced acute hypomethylation in HCT116 cells by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) treatment (HCT116-5-aza-CdR) and compared that to DKO cells, evaluating DNA methylation by microarray and monitoring the expression of XIST and imprinted genes IGF2, H19, and PEG10. Whereas imprinted genes showed biallelic expression in HCT116-5-aza-CdR and DKO cells, the XIST locus was hypomethylated and weakly expressed only under acute hypomethylation conditions, indicating the importance of XIST repression in the active X to cell survival. Given that DNMT3A is the only active DNMT in DKO cells, it may be responsible for ensuring the repression of XIST in those cells. Taken together, our data suggest that XIST repression is more tightly controlled than genomic imprinting and, at least in part, is due to DNMT3A.]]>
Wed, 12 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Altered expression of the imprinted transcription factor PLAGL1 deregulates a network of genes in the human IUGR placenta. Iglesias-Platas I, Martin-Trujillo A, Petazzi P, Guillaumet-Adkins A, Esteller M, Monk D
Hum Mol Genet (Dec 2014)

Genomic imprinting is the epigenetic process that results in monoallelic expression of genes depending on parental origin. These genes are known to be critical for placental development and fetal growth in mammals. Aberrant epigenetic profiles at imprinted loci, such as DNA methylation defects, are surprisingly rare in pregnancies with compromised fetal growth, while variations in transcriptional output from the expressed alleles of imprinted genes are more commonly reported in pregnancies complicated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). To determine if PLAGL1 and HYMAI, two imprinted transcripts deregulated in Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus, are involved in non-syndromic IUGR we compared the expression and DNA methylation levels in a large cohort of placental biopsies from IUGR and uneventful pregnancies. This revealed that despite appropriate maternal methylation at the shared PLAGL1/HYMAI promoter, there was a loss of correlation between PLAGL1 and HYMAI expression in IUGR. This incongruity was due to higher HYMAI expression in IUGR gestations, coupled with PLAGL1 down-regulation in placentas from IUGR girls, but not boys. The PLAGL1 protein is a zinc-finger transcription factor that has been shown to be a master coordinator of a genetic growth network in mice. We observe PLAGL1 binding to the H19/IGF2 shared enhancers in placentae, with significant correlations between PLAGL1 levels with H19 and IGF2 expression levels. In addition, PLAGL1 binding and expression also correlate with expression levels of metabolic regulator genes SLC2A4, TCF4 and PPARγ1. Our results strongly suggest that fetal growth can be influenced by altered expression of the PLAGL1 gene network in human placenta.]]>
Fri, 07 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST