'; ?> geneimprint : Hot off the Press http://www.geneimprint.com/site/hot-off-the-press Daily listing of the most recent articles in epigenetics and imprinting, collected from the PubMed database. en-us Fri, 28 Nov 2014 02:15:49 PST Fri, 28 Nov 2014 02:15:49 PST jirtle@radonc.duke.edu james001@jirtle.com Plasma methylated septin 9: a colorectal cancer screening marker. Molnár B, Tóth K, Barták BK, Tulassay Z
Expert Rev Mol Diagn (Nov 2014)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a slow-developing cancer (10-15 years) with one of the highest frequencies in the world's population. Many countries have implemented various CRC screening programs, but have not achieved the desired compliance. Colonoscopy - considered the gold standard for CRC screening - has its limitations as well as the other techniques used, such as irrigoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, fecal blood and hemoglobin tests. The biomarker septin 9 has been found to be hypermethylated in nearly 100% of tissue neoplasia specimens and detected in circulating DNA fractions of CRC patients. A commercially available assay for septin 9 has been developed with moderate sensitivity (∼70%) and specificity (∼90%) and a second generation assay, Epi proColon 2.0 (Epigenomics AG), shows increased sensitivity (∼92%). The performance of the assay proved to be independent of tumor site and reaches a high sensitivity of 77%, even in early cancer stages (I and II). Furthermore, septin 9 was recently used in follow-up studies for detection of early recurrence of CRC. This article evaluates the opportunities, known limitations and future perspectives of the recently introduced Epi proColon(®) 2.0 test, which is based on the detection of aberrantly methylated DNA of the v2 region of the septin 9 gene in plasma.]]>
Thu, 27 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Community Resources and Technologies Developed Through the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Program. Satterlee JS, Beckel-Mitchener A, McAllister K, Procaccini DC, Rutter JL, Tyson FL, Chadwick LH
Methods Mol Biol (2015)

This chapter describes resources and technologies generated by the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Program that may be useful to epigenomics researchers investigating a variety of diseases including cancer. Highlights include reference epigenome maps for a wide variety of human cells and tissues, the development of new technologies for epigenetic assays and imaging, the identification of novel epigenetic modifications, and an improved understanding of the role of epigenetic processes in a diversity of human diseases. We also discuss future needs in this area including exploration of epigenomic variation between individuals, single-cell epigenomics, environmental epigenomics, exploration of the use of surrogate tissues, and improved technologies for epigenome manipulation.]]>
Tue, 25 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics Insights into Diabetes Etiopathogenesis. Berná G, Oliveras-López MJ, Jurado-Ruíz E, Tejedo J, Bedoya F, Soria B, Martín F
Nutrients (2014)

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a global pandemic, and the incidence of DM continues to grow worldwide. Nutrients and dietary patterns are central issues in the prevention, development and treatment of this disease. The pathogenesis of DM is not completely understood, but nutrient-gene interactions at different levels, genetic predisposition and dietary factors appear to be involved. Nutritional genomics studies generally focus on dietary patterns according to genetic variations, the role of gene-nutrient interactions, gene-diet-phenotype interactions and epigenetic modifications caused by nutrients; these studies will facilitate an understanding of the early molecular events that occur in DM and will contribute to the identification of better biomarkers and diagnostics tools. In particular, this approach will help to develop tailored diets that maximize the use of nutrients and other functional ingredients present in food, which will aid in the prevention and delay of DM and its complications. This review discusses the current state of nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics and epigenomics research on DM. Here, we provide an overview of the role of gene variants and nutrient interactions, the importance of nutrients and dietary patterns on gene expression, how epigenetic changes and micro RNAs (miRNAs) can alter cellular signaling in response to nutrients and the dietary interventions that may help to prevent the onset of DM.]]>
Tue, 25 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
pENCODE: A Plant Encyclopedia of DNA Elements. Lane AK, Niederhuth CE, Ji L, Schmitz RJ
Annu Rev Genet (Nov 2014)

ENCODE projects exist for many eukaryotes, including humans, but as of yet no defined project exists for plants. A plant ENCODE would be invaluable to the research community and could be more readily produced than its metazoan equivalents by capitalizing on the preexisting infrastructure provided from similar projects. Collecting and normalizing plant epigenomic data for a range of species will facilitate hypothesis generation, cross-species comparisons, annotation of genomes, and an understanding of epigenomic functions throughout plant evolution. Here, we discuss the need for such a project, outline the challenges it faces, and suggest ways forward to build a plant ENCODE.]]>
Tue, 25 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
The Influences of Genetic and Environmental Factors on Methylome-wide Association Studies for Human Diseases. Sun YV
Curr Genet Med Rep (Dec 2014)

DNA methylation (DNAm) is an essential epigenetic mechanism for normal development, and its variation may be associated with diseases. High-throughput technology allows robust measurement of DNA methylome in population studies. Methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) scan DNA methylome to detect new epigenetic loci affecting disease susceptibility. MWAS is an emerging approach to unraveling the mechanism linking genetics, environment, and human diseases. Here I review the recent studies of genetic determinants and environmental modifiers of DNAm, and the concept for partitioning genetic and environmental contribution to DNAm. These studies establish the correlation maps between genome and methylome, and enable the interpretation of epigenetic association with disease traits. Recent findings suggested that MWAS was a promising genomic method to identify epigenetic predictors accounting for unexplained disease risk. However, new study designs, analytical methods and shared resources need to be implemented to address the limitations and challenges in future epigenomic epidemiologic studies.]]>
Tue, 25 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Structural insight into autoinhibition and histone H3-induced activation of DNMT3A. Guo X, Wang L, Li J, Ding Z, Xiao J, Yin X, He S, Shi P, Dong L, Li G, Tian C, Wang J, Cong Y, Xu Y
Nature (Nov 2014)

DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that is essential for various developmental processes through regulating gene expression, genomic imprinting, and epigenetic inheritance. Mammalian genomic DNA methylation is established during embryogenesis by de novo DNA methyltransferases, DNMT3A and DNMT3B, and the methylation patterns vary with developmental stages and cell types. DNA methyltransferase 3-like protein (DNMT3L) is a catalytically inactive paralogue of DNMT3 enzymes, which stimulates the enzymatic activity of Dnmt3a. Recent studies have established a connection between DNA methylation and histone modifications, and revealed a histone-guided mechanism for the establishment of DNA methylation. The ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L (ADD) domain of Dnmt3a recognizes unmethylated histone H3 (H3K4me0). The histone H3 tail stimulates the enzymatic activity of Dnmt3a in vitro, whereas the molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that DNMT3A exists in an autoinhibitory form and that the histone H3 tail stimulates its activity in a DNMT3L-independent manner. We determine the crystal structures of DNMT3A-DNMT3L (autoinhibitory form) and DNMT3A-DNMT3L-H3 (active form) complexes at 3.82 and 2.90 Å resolution, respectively. Structural and biochemical analyses indicate that the ADD domain of DNMT3A interacts with and inhibits enzymatic activity of the catalytic domain (CD) through blocking its DNA-binding affinity. Histone H3 (but not H3K4me3) disrupts ADD-CD interaction, induces a large movement of the ADD domain, and thus releases the autoinhibition of DNMT3A. The finding adds another layer of regulation of DNA methylation to ensure that the enzyme is mainly activated at proper targeting loci when unmethylated H3K4 is present, and strongly supports a negative correlation between H3K4me3 and DNA methylation across the mammalian genome. Our study provides a new insight into an unexpected autoinhibition and histone H3-induced activation of the de novo DNA methyltransferase after its initial genomic positioning.]]>
Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Toward a Road Map for Global -Omics: A Primer on -Omic Technologies. Coughlin SS
Am J Epidemiol (Nov 2014)

As highlighted in a recent editorial in the Journal (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(2):127-128), the research area of "-omics" includes genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and nascent fields of scientific inquiry such as epigenomics and exposomics. These fields can be collectively referred to as "global -omics." Increasing efforts have been made over the past 2 decades to identify and modify environmental risk factors among persons who are susceptible to disease because of their genotype and to integrate genetic information and other biological variables with information about individual-level risk factors and group-level or societal factors related to the broader residential, behavioral, or cultural context. In genome-wide association studies, only a small proportion of heritability is explained by genetic variants identified to date, which has prompted researchers in bioinformatics and biostatistics to take into account nonlinear relationships due to gene-environment or gene-gene interactions. The exposome, which is dynamic and variable, consists of all of the internal and external exposures an individual incurs over a lifetime. Both the epigenome and exposome change with age. The prenatal and perinatal periods are thought to be important times for epigenetic marking. Once the human epigenome has been fully mapped, identification of the effects of all deleterious environmental exposures according to duration of exposure and time period will be a complex undertaking, requiring collaborative epidemiologic studies.]]>
Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Genomic imprinting, action, and interaction of maternal and fetal genomes. Keverne EB
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (Nov 2014)

Mammalian viviparity (intrauterine development of the fetus) introduced a new dimension to brain development, with the fetal hypothalamus and fetal placenta developing at a time when the fetal placenta engages hypothalamic structures of the maternal generation. Such transgenerational interactions provide a basis for ensuring optimal maternalism in the next generation. This success has depended on genomic imprinting and a biased role of the matriline. Maternal methylation imprints determine parent of origin expression of genes fundamental to both placental and hypothalamic development. The matriline takes a further leading role for transgenerational reprogramming of these imprints. Developmental errors are minimized by the tight control that imprinted genes have on regulation of downstream evolutionary expanded gene families important for placental and hypothalamic development. Imprinted genes themselves have undergone purifying selection, providing a framework of stability for in utero development with most growth variance occurring postnatally. Mothers, not fathers, take the lead in the endocrinological and behavior adaptations that nurture, feed, and protect the infant. In utero coadaptive development of the placenta and hypothalamus has thus required a concomitant development to ensure male masculinization. Only placental male mammals evolved the sex determining SRY, which activates Sox9 for testes formation. SRY is a hybrid gene of Dgcr8 expressed in the developing placenta and Sox3 expressed in hypothalamic development. This hybridization of genes that take their origin from the placenta and hypothalamus has enabled critical in utero timing for the development of fetal Leydig cells, and hence testosterone production for hypothalamic masculinization.]]>
Tue, 18 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.  
Nucleic Acids Res (Nov 2014)

The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a large suite of online resources for biological information and data, including the GenBank(®) nucleic acid sequence database and the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals. Additional NCBI resources focus on literature (Bookshelf, PubMed Central (PMC) and PubReader); medical genetics (ClinVar, dbMHC, the Genetic Testing Registry, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database and MedGen); genes and genomics (BioProject, BioSample, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, Gene, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Genome, HomoloGene, the Map Viewer, Nucleotide, PopSet, Probe, RefSeq, Sequence Read Archive, the Taxonomy Browser, Trace Archive and UniGene); and proteins and chemicals (Biosystems, COBALT, the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), Protein Clusters, Protein and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases). The Entrez system provides search and retrieval operations for many of these databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.]]>
Sat, 15 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Gene-Lifestyle Interactions in Complex Diseases: Design and Description of the GLACIER and VIKING Studies. Kurbasic A, Poveda A, Chen Y, Agren A, Engberg E, Hu FB, Johansson I, Barroso I, Brändström A, Hallmans G, Renström F, Franks PW
Curr Nutr Rep (Dec 2014)

Most complex diseases have well-established genetic and non-genetic risk factors. In some instances, these risk factors are likely to interact, whereby their joint effects convey a level of risk that is either significantly more or less than the sum of these risks. Characterizing these gene-environment interactions may help elucidate the biology of complex diseases, as well as to guide strategies for their targeted prevention. In most cases, the detection of gene-environment interactions will require sample sizes in excess of those needed to detect the marginal effects of the genetic and environmental risk factors. Although many consortia have been formed, comprising multiple diverse cohorts to detect gene-environment interactions, few robust examples of such interactions have been discovered. This may be because combining data across studies, usually through meta-analysis of summary data from the contributing cohorts, is often a statistically inefficient approach for the detection of gene-environment interactions. Ideally, single, very large and well-genotyped prospective cohorts, with validated measures of environmental risk factor and disease outcomes should be used to study interactions. The presence of strong founder effects within those cohorts might further strengthen the capacity to detect novel genetic effects and gene-environment interactions. Access to accurate genealogical data would also aid in studying the diploid nature of the human genome, such as genomic imprinting (parent-of-origin effects). Here we describe two studies from northern Sweden (the GLACIER and VIKING studies) that fulfill these characteristics.]]>
Fri, 14 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Mating ecology explains patterns of genome elimination. Gardner A, Ross L
Ecol Lett (Dec 2014)

Genome elimination - whereby an individual discards chromosomes inherited from one parent, and transmits only those inherited from the other parent - is found across thousands of animal species. It is more common in association with inbreeding, under male heterogamety, in males, and in the form of paternal genome elimination. However, the reasons for this broad pattern remain unclear. We develop a mathematical model to determine how degree of inbreeding, sex determination, genomic location, pattern of gene expression and parental origin of the eliminated genome interact to determine the fate of genome-elimination alleles. We find that: inbreeding promotes paternal genome elimination in the heterogametic sex; this may incur population extinction under female heterogamety, owing to eradication of males; and extinction is averted under male heterogamety, owing to countervailing sex-ratio selection. Thus, we explain the observed pattern of genome elimination. Our results highlight the interaction between mating system, sex-ratio selection and intragenomic conflict.]]>
Fri, 14 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Essential nutrient supplementation prevents heritable metabolic disease in multigenerational intrauterine growth-restricted rats. Goodspeed D, Seferovic MD, Holland W, Mcknight RA, Summers SA, Branch DW, Lane RH, Aagaard KM
FASEB J (Nov 2014)

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) confers heritable alterations in DNA methylation, rendering risk of adult metabolic syndrome (MetS). Because CpG methylation is coupled to intake of essential nutrients along the one-carbon pathway, we reasoned that essential nutrient supplementation (ENS) may abrogate IUGR-conferred multigenerational MetS. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral uterine artery ligation causing IUGR in F1. Among the F2 generation, IUGR lineage rats were underweight at birth (6.7 vs. 8.0 g, P < 0.0001) and obese by adulthood (p160: 613 vs. 510 g; P < 0.0001). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry studies revealed increased central fat mass (Δ+40 g), accompanied by dyslipidemic (>30% elevated, P < 0.05) serum triglycerides (139 mg/dl), very-LDLs (27.8 mg/dl), and fatty acids (632 µM). Hyperglycemic-euglycemic clamp studies and glucose tolerance testing revealed insulin resistance. Conversely, IUGR lineage ENS-fed rats did not manifest MetS, with significantly lower body weight (p160: 410 g), >5-fold less central fat mass, normal hepatic glucose efflux, and >70% reduced circulating triglycerides and very-LDLs compared with IUGR control-fed F2 offspring (P < 0.01). Moreover, increased methylation of the IGF-1 P2 transcriptional start site among IUGR lineage F2 offspring was reversed in ENS (P < 0.04). This is an initial demonstration that supplementation along the one-carbon pathway abrogates adult morbidity and associated epigenomic modifications of IGF-1 in a rodent model of multigenerational MetS.-Goodspeed, D., Seferovic, M. D., Holland, W., Mcknight, R. A., Summers, S. A., Branch, D. W., Lane, R. H., Aagaard, K. M. Essential nutrient supplementation prevents heritable metabolic disease in multigenerational intrauterine growth-restricted rats.]]>
Fri, 14 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Genetic Variation in Imprinted Genes is Associated with Risk of Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease. Chaudhry M, Wang X, Bamne MN, Hasnain S, Demirci FY, Lopez OL, Kamboh MI
J Alzheimers Dis (Nov 2014)

Epigenetic changes including genomic imprinting may affect risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). There are >100 known imprinted genes and most of them are expressed in human brain. In this study, we examined the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 93 imprinted genes with LOAD risk in 1291 LOAD cases and 958 cognitively normal controls. We performed single-site, gene-based, and haplotype analyses. Single-site analysis showed 14 significant associations at p < 0.01. The most significant SNP (rs11770199; p = 0.0003) in single-site analysis was located on chromosome 7 in the GRB10 gene. Gene-based analyses revealed four significant associations in the WT1, ZC3H12C, DLGAP2, and GPR1 genes at p < 0.05. The haplotype analysis also revealed significant associations with three genes (ZC3H12C, DLGAP2, and GPR1). These findings suggest a possible role of imprinted genes in AD pathogenesis that show specific expression in the brain.]]>
Thu, 13 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
DLK1/PREF1 regulates nutrient metabolism and protects from steatosis. Charalambous M, Da Rocha ST, Radford EJ, Medina-Gomez G, Curran S, Pinnock SB, Ferrón SR, Vidal-Puig A, Ferguson-Smith AC
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (Nov 2014)

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with insulin resistance and obesity, as well as progressive liver dysfunction. Recent animal studies have underscored the importance of hepatic growth hormone (GH) signaling in the development of NAFLD. The imprinted Delta-like homolog 1 (Dlk1)/preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref1) gene encodes a complex protein producing both circulating and membrane-tethered isoforms whose expression dosage is functionally important because even modest elevation during embryogenesis causes lethality. DLK1 is up-regulated during embryogenesis, during suckling, and in the mother during pregnancy. We investigated the normal role for elevated DLK1 dosage by overexpressing Dlk1 from endogenous control elements. This increased DLK1 dosage caused improved glucose tolerance with no primary defect in adipose tissue expansion even under extreme metabolic stress. Rather, Dlk1 overexpression caused reduced fat stores, pituitary insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) resistance, and a defect in feedback regulation of GH. Increased circulatory GH culminated in a switch in whole body fuel metabolism and a reduction in hepatic steatosis. We propose that the function of DLK1 is to shift the metabolic mode of the organism toward peripheral lipid oxidation and away from lipid storage, thus mediating important physiological adaptations associated with early life and with implications for metabolic disease resistance.]]>
Wed, 12 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Stability of XIST repression in relation to genomic imprinting following global genome demethylation in a human cell line. de Araújo ES, Vasques LR, Stabellini R, Krepischi AC, Pereira LV
Braz J Med Biol Res (Dec 2014)

DNA methylation is essential in X chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting, maintaining repression of XIST in the active X chromosome and monoallelic repression of imprinted genes. Disruption of the DNA methyltransferase genes DNMT1 and DNMT3B in the HCT116 cell line (DKO cells) leads to global DNA hypomethylation and biallelic expression of the imprinted gene IGF2 but does not lead to reactivation of XIST expression, suggesting that XIST repression is due to a more stable epigenetic mark than imprinting. To test this hypothesis, we induced acute hypomethylation in HCT116 cells by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) treatment (HCT116-5-aza-CdR) and compared that to DKO cells, evaluating DNA methylation by microarray and monitoring the expression of XIST and imprinted genes IGF2, H19, and PEG10. Whereas imprinted genes showed biallelic expression in HCT116-5-aza-CdR and DKO cells, the XIST locus was hypomethylated and weakly expressed only under acute hypomethylation conditions, indicating the importance of XIST repression in the active X to cell survival. Given that DNMT3A is the only active DNMT in DKO cells, it may be responsible for ensuring the repression of XIST in those cells. Taken together, our data suggest that XIST repression is more tightly controlled than genomic imprinting and, at least in part, is due to DNMT3A.]]>
Wed, 12 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
A novel imprinted transgene located near a repetitive element that exhibits allelic imbalance in DNA methylation during early development. Uchiyama K, Watanabe D, Hayasaka M, Hanaoka K
Dev Growth Differ (Nov 2014)

A mouse line carrying a lacZ transgene driven by the human EEF1A1/EF1alpha promoter was established. Although the promoter is known to show ubiquitous activity, only paternal transgene alleles were expressed, resulting in a transgene imprinting. At mid-gestation, the promoter sequence was differentially methylated, hypomethylated for paternal and hypermethylated for maternal alleles. In germline, the promoter was a typical differentially methylated region. After fertilization, however, both alleles were hypermethylated. Thus, the differential methylation of the promoter required for transgene imprinting was re-established during later embryonic development independently of the germline differential methylation. Furthermore, also a retroelement promoter closely-flanking imprinted transgene and its wild type counterpart displayed similar differential methylation during early development. The retroelement promoter was methylated differentially also in germline, but in an opposite pattern to the embryonic differential methylation. These results suggest that there might be an unknown epigenetic regulation inducing transgene imprinting independently of DNA methylation in the transgene insertion site. Then, besides CpG dinucleotides, non-CpG cytosines of the retroelement promoter were highly methylated especially in the transgene-active mid-gestational embryos, suggesting that an unusual epigenetic regulation might protect the active transgene against de novo methylation occurring generally in mid-gestational embryo.]]>
Wed, 12 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Altered gene expression in human placentas after IVF/ICSI. Nelissen EC, Dumoulin JC, Busato F, Ponger L, Eijssen LM, Evers JL, Tost J, van Montfoort AP
Hum Reprod (Dec 2014)

Is gene expression in placental tissue of IVF/ICSI patients altered when compared with a spontaneously conceived group, and are these alterations due to loss of imprinting (LOI) in the case of imprinted genes?]]>
Wed, 12 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Identification of master genes involved in liver key functions through transcriptomics and epigenomics of methyl donor deficiency in rat: Relevance to non-alcoholic liver disease. Chen G, Broséus J, Hergalant S, Donnart A, Chevalier C, Bolaños-Jiménez F, Guéant JL, Houlgatte R
Mol Nutr Food Res (Nov 2014)

Our study aims to investigate molecular events associated to methyl donor deficiency (MDD) by analysing the transcriptome and the methylome of MDD rats in liver.]]>
Fri, 07 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Altered expression of the imprinted transcription factor PLAGL1 deregulates a network of genes in the human IUGR placenta. Iglesias-Platas I, Martin-Trujillo A, Petazzi P, Guillaumet-Adkins A, Esteller M, Monk D
Hum Mol Genet (Dec 2014)

Genomic imprinting is the epigenetic process that results in monoallelic expression of genes depending on parental origin. These genes are known to be critical for placental development and fetal growth in mammals. Aberrant epigenetic profiles at imprinted loci, such as DNA methylation defects, are surprisingly rare in pregnancies with compromised fetal growth, while variations in transcriptional output from the expressed alleles of imprinted genes are more commonly reported in pregnancies complicated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). To determine if PLAGL1 and HYMAI, two imprinted transcripts deregulated in Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus, are involved in non-syndromic IUGR we compared the expression and DNA methylation levels in a large cohort of placental biopsies from IUGR and uneventful pregnancies. This revealed that despite appropriate maternal methylation at the shared PLAGL1/HYMAI promoter, there was a loss of correlation between PLAGL1 and HYMAI expression in IUGR. This incongruity was due to higher HYMAI expression in IUGR gestations, coupled with PLAGL1 down-regulation in placentas from IUGR girls, but not boys. The PLAGL1 protein is a zinc-finger transcription factor that has been shown to be a master coordinator of a genetic growth network in mice. We observe PLAGL1 binding to the H19/IGF2 shared enhancers in placentae, with significant correlations between PLAGL1 levels with H19 and IGF2 expression levels. In addition, PLAGL1 binding and expression also correlate with expression levels of metabolic regulator genes SLC2A4, TCF4 and PPARγ1. Our results strongly suggest that fetal growth can be influenced by altered expression of the PLAGL1 gene network in human placenta.]]>
Fri, 07 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST
Distinct allelic expression patterns of imprinted IGF2 in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Ozaki S, Kawahara E, Maenaka S, Hoang NV, Oyama T, Imai M, Oda M, Yano S
Oncol Lett (Dec 2014)

The insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2) is an imprinting gene, which mediates cell growth and apoptosis. The loss of imprinting (LOI) of IGF2 has been associated with the development of cancer. In the present study, loss LOI of IGF2 in lung cancer was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in combination with DNA sequencing of samples collected by laser capture microdissection. The status of each sample was assigned as imprinting when PCR-RFLP revealed only one band or sequence with a single peak; otherwise, the case was classified as LOI. LOI was identified in eight out of 13 adenocarcinoma cases (62%), but was not detected in any of the nine squamous cell carcinoma cases (0%). These results suggest that IGF2 LOI is involved in the molecular pathogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma, but not squamous cell carcinoma, and that LOI may be detected through increased IGF2 expression levels.]]>
Mon, 03 Nov 2014 00:00:00 PST