'; ?> geneimprint : Hot off the Press http://www.geneimprint.com/site/hot-off-the-press Daily listing of the most recent articles in epigenetics and imprinting, collected from the PubMed database. en-us Fri, 22 Jun 2018 16:19:00 EDT Fri, 22 Jun 2018 16:19:00 EDT jirtle@radonc.duke.edu james001@jirtle.com Parent-of-origin-dependent nucleosome organization correlates with genomic imprinting in maize. Dong X, Chen J, Li T, Li E, Zhang X, Zhang M, Song W, Zhao H, Lai J
Genome Res (Jun 2018)

Genomic imprinting refers to allele-specific expression of genes depending on their parental origin. Nucleosomes, the fundamental units of chromatin, play a critical role in gene transcriptional regulation. However, it remains unknown whether differential nucleosome organization is related to the allele-specific expression of imprinted genes. Here, we generated a genome-wide map of allele-specific nucleosome occupancy in maize endosperm and presented an integrated analysis of its relationship with parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression and DNA methylation. We found that ∼2.3% of nucleosomes showed significant parental bias in maize endosperm. The parent-of-origin-dependent nucleosomes mostly exist as single isolated nucleosomes. Parent-of-origin-dependent nucleosomes were significantly associated with the allele-specific expression of imprinted genes, with nucleosomes positioned preferentially in the promoter of nonexpressed alleles of imprinted genes. Furthermore, we found that most of the paternal specifically positioned nucleosomes (pat-nucleosomes) were associated with parent-of-origin-dependent differential methylated regions, suggesting a functional link between the maternal demethylation and the occurrence of pat-nucleosome. Maternal specifically positioned nucleosomes (mat-nucleosomes) were independent of allele-specific DNA methylation but seem to be associated with allele-specific histone modification. Our study provides the first genome-wide map of allele-specific nucleosome occupancy in plants and suggests a mechanistic connection between chromatin organization and genomic imprinting.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Characterization of imprinted genes in rice reveals conservation of regulation and imprinting with other plant species. Chen C, Li T, Zhu S, Liu Z, Shi Z, Zheng X, Chen R, Huang J, Shen Y, Luo S, Wang L, Liu QQ, E Z
Plant Physiol (Jun 2018)

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon by which certain genes display differential expression in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Hundreds of imprinted genes have been identified from several plant species. Here we identified, with a high level of confidence, 208 imprinted gene candidates from rice (Oryza sativa). Imprinted genes of rice showed limited association to the transposable elements, which contrasts with findings from Arabidopsis thaliana. Generally, imprinting in rice is conserved within a species, but intraspecific variation was also detected. The imprinted rice genes do not show signatures of selection, which suggests that domestication has had a limited evolutionary consequence on genomic imprinting. Though conservation of imprinting in plants is limited, we show that some loci are imprinted in several different species. Moreover, our results suggest that different types of epigenetic regulation can be established either before or after fertilization. Imprinted 24-nt small RNAs and their neighboring genes tend to express alleles from different parents. This association was not observed between 21-nt small RNAs and their neighboring genes. Together, our findings suggest that regulation of imprinting can be diverse, and genomic imprinting has evolutionary and biological significance.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Biospecimens and the ABCD study: Rationale, methods of collection, measurement and early data. Uban KA, Horton MK, Jacobus J, Heyser C, Thompson WK, Tapert SF, Madden PAF, Sowell ER,  
Dev Cogn Neurosci (Aug 2018)

Biospecimen collection in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study - of hair samples, shed deciduous (baby) teeth, and body fluids - will serve dual functions of screening for study eligibility, and providing measures of biological processes thought to predict or correlate with key study outcomes on brain and cognitive development. Biosamples are being collected annually to screen for recency of drug use prior to the neuroimaging or cognitive testing visit, and to store for the following future studies: (1) on the effects of exposure to illicit and recreational drugs (including alcohol and nicotine); (2) of pubertal hormones on brain and cognitive developmental trajectories; (3) on the contribution of genomics and epigenomics to child and adolescent development and behavioral outcomes; and (4) with pre- and post-natal exposure to environmental neurotoxicants and drugs of abuse measured from novel tooth analyses. The present manuscript describes the rationales for inclusion and selection of the specific biospecimens, methodological considerations for each measure, future plans for assessment of biospecimens during follow-up visits, and preliminary ABCD data to illustrate methodological considerations.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Genome-wide association study in Japanese females identifies fifteen novel skin-related trait associations. Endo C, Johnson TA, Morino R, Nakazono K, Kamitsuji S, Akita M, Kawajiri M, Yamasaki T, Kami A, Hoshi Y, Tada A, Ishikawa K, Hine M, Kobayashi M, Kurume N, Tsunemi Y, Kamatani N, Kawashima M
Sci Rep (Jun 2018)

Skin trait variation impacts quality-of-life, especially for females from the viewpoint of beauty. To investigate genetic variation related to these traits, we conducted a GWAS of various skin phenotypes in 11,311 Japanese women and identified associations for age-spots, freckles, double eyelids, straight/curly hair, eyebrow thickness, hairiness, and sweating. In silico annotation with RoadMap Epigenomics epigenetic state maps and colocalization analysis of GWAS and GTEx Project eQTL signals provided information about tissue specificity, candidate causal variants, and functional target genes. Novel signals for skin-spot traits neighboured AKAP1/MSI2 (rs17833789; P = 2.2 × 10), BNC2 (rs10810635; P = 2.1 × 10), HSPA12A (rs12259842; P = 7.1 × 10), PPARGC1B (rs251468; P = 1.3 × 10), and RAB11FIP2 (rs10444039; P = 5.6 × 10). HSPA12A SNPs were the only protein-coding gene eQTLs identified across skin-spot loci. Double edged eyelid analysis identified that a signal around EMX2 (rs12570134; P = 8.2 × 10) was also associated with expression of EMX2 and the antisense-RNA gene EMX2OS in brain putamen basal ganglia tissue. A known hair morphology signal in EDAR was associated with both eyebrow thickness (rs3827760; P = 1.7 × 10) and straight/curly hair (rs260643; P = 1.6 × 10). Excessive hairiness signals' top SNPs were also eQTLs for TBX15 (rs984225; P = 1.6 × 10), BCL2 (rs7226979; P = 7.3 × 10), and GCC2 and LIMS1 (rs6542772; P = 2.2 × 10). For excessive sweating, top variants in two signals in chr2:28.82-29.05 Mb (rs56089836; P = 1.7 × 10) were eQTLs for either PPP1CB or PLB1, while a top chr16:48.26-48.45 Mb locus SNP was a known ABCC11 missense variant (rs6500380; P = 6.8 × 10). In total, we identified twelve loci containing sixteen association signals, of which fifteen were novel. These findings will help dermatologic researchers better understand the genetic underpinnings of skin-related phenotypic variation in human populations.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Distinct methylation profile of mucinous ovarian carcinoma reveals susceptibility to proteasome inhibitors. Liew PL, Huang RL, Weng YC, Fang CL, Hui-Ming Huang T, Lai HC
Int J Cancer (Jul 2018)

Mucinous type of epithelial ovarian cancer (MuOC) is a unique subtype with a poor survival outcome in recurrent and advanced stages. The role of type-specific epigenomics and its clinical significance remains uncertain. We analyzed the methylomic profiles of 6 benign mucinous adenomas, 24 MuOCs, 103 serous type of epithelial ovarian cancers (SeOCs) and 337 nonepithelial ovarian cancers. MuOC and SeOC exhibited distinct DNA methylation profiles comprising 101 genes, 81 of which exhibited low methylation in MuOC and were associated with the response to glucocorticoid, ATP hydrolysis-coupled proton transport, proteolysis involved in the cellular protein catabolic process and ion transmembrane transport. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that the profiles of MuOC were similar to colorectal adenocarcinoma and stomach adenocarcinoma. Genetic interaction network analysis of differentially methylated genes in MuOC showed a dominant network module is the proteasome subunit beta (PSMB) family. Combined functional module and methylation analysis identified PSMB8 as a candidate marker for MuOC. Immunohistochemical staining of PSMB8 used to validate in 94 samples of ovarian tumors (mucinous adenoma, MuOC or SeOC) and 62 samples of gastrointestinal cancer. PSMB8 was commonly expressed in MuOC and gastrointestinal cancer samples, predominantly as strong cytoplasmic and occasionally weak nuclei staining, but was not expressed in SeOC samples. Carfilzomib, a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, suppressed MuOC cell growth in vitro. This study unveiled a mucinous-type-specific methylation profile and suggests the potential use of a proteasome inhibitor to treat MuOC.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Unanswered Questions Regarding Sex and BMP/TGF-β Signaling. Shah TA, Rogers MB
J Dev Biol (Jun 2018)

Crosstalk between the BMP and TGF-β signaling pathways regulates many complex developmental processes from the earliest stages of embryogenesis throughout adult life. In many situations, the two signaling pathways act reciprocally. For example, TGF-β signaling is generally pro-fibrotic, whereas BMP signaling is anti-fibrotic and pro-calcific. Sex-specific differences occur in many diseases including cardiovascular pathologies. Differing ratios of fibrosis and calcification in stenotic valves suggests that BMP/TGF-β signaling may vary in men and women. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the interplay between sex and BMP/TGF-β signaling and pose several unanswered questions.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
The effects of DNA methylation on human psychology. Kader F, Ghai M, Maharaj L
Behav Brain Res (07 2018)

DNA methylation is a fundamental epigenetic modification in the human genome; pivotal in development, genomic imprinting, X inactivation, chromosome stability, gene expression and methylation aberrations are involved in an array of human diseases. Methylation at promoters is associated with transcriptional repression, whereas gene body methylation is generally associated with gene expression. Extrinsic factors such as age, diets and lifestyle affect DNA methylation which consequently alters gene expression. Stress, anxiety, depression, life satisfaction, emotion among numerous other psychological factors also modify DNA methylation patterns. This correlation is frequently investigated in four candidate genes; NR3C1, SLC6A4, BDNF and OXTR, since regulation of these genes directly impact responses to social situations, stress, threats, behaviour and neural functions. Such studies underpin the hypothesis that DNA methylation is involved in deviant human behaviour, psychological and psychiatric conditions. These candidate genes may be targeted in future to assess the correlation between methylation, social experiences and long-term behavioural phenotypes in humans; and may potentially serve as biomarkers for therapeutic intervention.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Epigenomics and metabolomics reveal the mechanism of the APOA2-saturated fat intake interaction affecting obesity. Lai CQ, Smith CE, Parnell LD, Lee YC, Corella D, Hopkins P, Hidalgo BA, Aslibekyan S, Province MA, Absher D, Arnett DK, Tucker KL, Ordovas JM
Am J Clin Nutr (Jun 2018)

The putative functional variant -265T>C (rs5082) within the APOA2 promoter has shown consistent interactions with saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake to influence the risk of obesity.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Epigenetic effects of metformin: From molecular mechanisms to clinical implications. Bridgeman SC, Ellison GC, Melton PE, Newsholme P, Mamotte CDS
Diabetes Obes Metab (Jul 2018)

There is a growing body of evidence that links epigenetic modifications to type 2 diabetes. Researchers have more recently investigated effects of commonly used medications, including those prescribed for diabetes, on epigenetic processes. This work reviews the influence of the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin on epigenomics, microRNA levels and subsequent gene expression, and potential clinical implications. Metformin may influence the activity of numerous epigenetic modifying enzymes, mostly by modulating the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activated AMPK can phosphorylate numerous substrates, including epigenetic enzymes such as histone acetyltransferases (HATs), class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), usually resulting in their inhibition; however, HAT1 activity may be increased. Metformin has also been reported to decrease expression of multiple histone methyltransferases, to increase the activity of the class III HDAC SIRT1 and to decrease the influence of DNMT inhibitors. There is evidence that these alterations influence the epigenome and gene expression, and may contribute to the antidiabetic properties of metformin and, potentially, may protect against cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline and aging. The expression levels of numerous microRNAs are also reportedly influenced by metformin treatment and may confer antidiabetic and anticancer activities. However, as the reported effects of metformin on epigenetic enzymes act to both increase and decrease histone acetylation, histone and DNA methylation, and gene expression, a significant degree of uncertainty exists concerning the overall effect of metformin on the epigenome, on gene expression, and on the subsequent effect on the health of metformin users.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
'Omic' technologies as a helpful tool in radioecological research. Volkova PY, Geras'kin SA
J Environ Radioact (Sep 2018)

This article presents a brief review of the modern 'omic' technologies, namely genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, as well as the examples of their possible use in radioecology. For each technology, a short description of advances, limitations, and instrumental applications is given. In addition, the review contains examples of successful use of 'omic' technologies in the assessment of biological effects of pollutants in the field conditions.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Pathways from epigenomics and glycobiology towards novel biomarkers of addiction and its radical cure. Reece AS, Wang W, Hulse GK
Med Hypotheses (Jul 2018)

The recent demonstration that addiction-relevant neuronal ensembles defined by known master transcription factors and their connectome is networked throughout mesocorticolimbic reward circuits and resonates harmonically at known frequencies implies that single-cell pan-omics techniques can improve our understanding of Substance Use Disorders (SUD's). Application of machine learning algorithms to such data could find diagnostic utility as biomarkers both to define the presence of the disorder and to quantitate its severity and find myriad applications in a developmental pipeline towards therapeutics and cure. Recent epigenomic studies have uncovered a wealth of clinically important data relating to synapse-nucleus signalling, memory storage, lineage-fate determination and cellular control and are contributing greatly to our understanding of all SUD's. Epigenetics interacts extensively with glycobiology. Glycans decorate DNA, RNA and many circulating critical proteins particularly immunoglobulins. Glycosylation is emerging as a major information-laden post-translational protein modification with documented application for biomarker development. The integration of these two emerging cutting-edge technologies provides a powerful and fertile algorithmic-bioinformatic space for the development both of SUD biomarkers and novel cutting edge therapeutics.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Alzheimer's disease in the omics era. Sancesario GM, Bernardini S
Clin Biochem (Jun 2018)

Recent progresses in high-throughput technologies have led to a new scenario in investigating pathologies, named the "Omics era", which integrate the opportunity to collect large amounts of data and information at the molecular and protein levels together with the development of novel computational and statistical tools that are able to analyze and filter such data. Subsequently, advances in genotyping arrays, next generation sequencing, mass spectrometry technology, and bioinformatics allowed for the simultaneous large-scale study of thousands of genes (genomics), epigenetics factors (epigenomics), RNA (transcriptomics), metabolites (metabolomics) and proteins(proteomics), with the possibility of integrating multiple types of omics data ("multi -omics"). All of these technological innovations have modified the approach to the study of complex diseases, such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD), thus representing a promising tool to investigate the relationship between several molecular pathways in AD as well as other pathologies. This review focuses on the current knowledge on the pathology of AD, the recent findings from Omics sciences, and the challenge of the use of Big Data. We then focus on future perspectives for Omics sciences, such as the discovery of novel diagnostic biomarkers or drugs.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Molecular landscape of esophageal cancer: implications for early detection and personalized therapy. Talukdar FR, di Pietro M, Secrier M, Moehler M, Goepfert K, Lima SSC, Pinto LFR, Hendricks D, Parker MI, Herceg Z
Ann N Y Acad Sci (Jun 2018)

Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most lethal cancers and a public health concern worldwide, owing to late diagnosis and lack of efficient treatment. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are main histopathological subtypes of EC that show striking differences in geographical distribution, possibly due to differences in exposure to risk factors and lifestyles. ESCC and EAC are distinct diseases in terms of cell of origin, epidemiology, and molecular architecture of tumor cells. Past efforts aimed at translating potential molecular candidates into clinical practice proved to be challenging, underscoring the need for identifying novel candidates for early diagnosis and therapy of EC. Several major international efforts have brought about important advances in identifying molecular landscapes of ESCC and EAC toward understanding molecular mechanisms and critical molecular events driving the progression and pathological features of the disease. In our review, we summarize recent advances in the areas of genomics and epigenomics of ESCC and EAC, their mutational signatures and immunotherapy. We also discuss implications of recent advances in characterizing the genome and epigenome of EC for the discovery of diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers and development of new targets for personalized treatment and prevention.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Development and application of an integrated allele-specific pipeline for methylomic and epigenomic analysis (MEA). Richard Albert J, Koike T, Younesy H, Thompson R, Bogutz AB, Karimi MM, Lorincz MC
BMC Genomics (Jun 2018)

Allele-specific transcriptional regulation, including of imprinted genes, is essential for normal mammalian development. While the regulatory regions controlling imprinted genes are associated with DNA methylation (DNAme) and specific histone modifications, the interplay between transcription and these epigenetic marks at allelic resolution is typically not investigated genome-wide due to a lack of bioinformatic packages that can process and integrate multiple epigenomic datasets with allelic resolution. In addition, existing ad-hoc software only consider SNVs for allele-specific read discovery. This limitation omits potentially informative INDELs, which constitute about one fifth of the number of SNVs in mice, and introduces a systematic reference bias in allele-specific analyses.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Nucleosome-level 3D organization of the genome. Ohno M, Priest DG, Taniguchi Y
Biochem Soc Trans (Jun 2018)

Nucleosomes are the unitary structures of chromosome folding, and their arrangements are intimately coupled to the regulation of genome activities. Conventionally, structural analyses using electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography have been used to study such spatial nucleosome arrangements. In contrast, recent improvements in the resolution of sequencing-based methods allowed investigation of nucleosome arrangements separately at each genomic locus, enabling exploration of gene-dependent regulation mechanisms. Here, we review recent studies on nucleosome folding in chromosomes from these two methodological perspectives: conventional structural analyses and DNA sequencing, and discuss their implications for future research.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Omics studies for comprehensive understanding of immunoglobulin A nephropathy: state-of-the-art and future directions. Schena FP, Serino G, Sallustio F, Falchi M, Cox SN
Nephrol Dial Transplant (Jun 2018)

Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common worldwide primary glomerulonephritis with a strong autoimmune component. The disease shows variability in both clinical phenotypes and endpoints and can be potentially subdivided into more homogeneous subtypes through the identification of specific molecular biomarkers. This review focuses on the role of omics in driving the identification of potential molecular subtypes of the disease through the integration of multilevel data from genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics. First, the identification of molecular biomarkers, including mapping of the full spectrum of common and rare IgAN risk alleles, could permit a more precise stratification of IgAN patients. Second, the analysis of transcriptomic patterns and their modulation by epigenetic factors like microRNAs has the potential to increase our understanding in the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. Third, the specificity of urinary proteomic and metabolomic signatures and the understanding of their functional relevance may contribute to the development of new non-invasive biomarkers for a better molecular characterization of the renal damage and its follow-up. All these approaches can give information for targeted therapeutic decisions and will support novel clinical decision making. In conclusion, we offer a framework of omic studies and outline barriers and potential solutions that should be used for improving the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. The ongoing decade is exploiting novel high-throughput molecular technologies and computational analyses for improving the diagnosis (precision nephrology) and treatment (personalized therapy) of the IgAN subtypes.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
The Type 3 Deiodinase: Epigenetic Control of Brain Thyroid Hormone Action and Neurological Function. Hernandez A, Stohn JP
Int J Mol Sci (Jun 2018)

Thyroid hormones (THs) influence multiple processes in the developing and adult central nervous system, and their local availability needs to be maintained at levels that are tailored to the requirements of their biological targets. The local complement of TH transporters, deiodinase enzymes, and receptors is critical to ensure specific levels of TH action in neural cells. The type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) inactivates THs and is highly present in the developing and adult brain, where it limits their availability and action. DIO3 deficiency in mice results in a host of neurodevelopmental and behavioral abnormalities, demonstrating the deleterious effects of TH excess, and revealing the critical role of DIO3 in the regulation of TH action in the brain. The fact the is an imprinted gene and that its allelic expression pattern varies across brain regions and during development introduces an additional level of control to deliver specific levels of hormone action in the central nervous system (CNS). The sensitive epigenetic nature of the mechanisms controlling the genomic imprinting of renders brain TH action particularly susceptible to disruption due to exogenous treatments and environmental exposures, with potential implications for the etiology of human neurodevelopmental disorders.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Cell-of-Origin DNA Methylation Signatures Are Maintained during Colorectal Carcinogenesis. Bormann F, Rodríguez-Paredes M, Lasitschka F, Edelmann D, Musch T, Benner A, Bergman Y, Dieter SM, Ball CR, Glimm H, Linhart HG, Lyko F
Cell Rep (Jun 2018)

Colorectal adenomas are precursor lesions of colorectal cancers and represent clonal amplifications of single cells from colonic crypts. DNA methylation patterns specify cell-type identity during cellular differentiation and, therefore, provide opportunities for the molecular analysis of tumors. We have now analyzed DNA methylation patterns in colorectal adenomas and identified three biologically defined subclasses that describe different intestinal crypt differentiation stages. Importantly, colorectal carcinomas could be classified into the same methylation subtypes, reflecting their shared cell types of origin with adenomas. Further data analysis also revealed significantly reduced overall survival for one of the subtypes. Our results provide a concept for understanding the methylation patterns observed in colorectal cancer and provide opportunities for tumor subclassification and patient stratification.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Sustainable data and metadata management at the BD2K-LINCS Data Coordination and Integration Center. Stathias V, Koleti A, Vidović D, Cooper DJ, Jagodnik KM, Terryn R, Forlin M, Chung C, Torre D, Ayad N, Medvedovic M, Ma'ayan A, Pillai A, Schürer SC
Sci Data (Jun 2018)

The NIH-funded LINCS Consortium is creating an extensive reference library of cell-based perturbation response signatures and sophisticated informatics tools incorporating a large number of perturbagens, model systems, and assays. To date, more than 350 datasets have been generated including transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics, cell phenotype and competitive binding profiling assays. The large volume and variety of data necessitate rigorous data standards and effective data management including modular data processing pipelines and end-user interfaces to facilitate accurate and reliable data exchange, curation, validation, standardization, aggregation, integration, and end user access. Deep metadata annotations and the use of qualified data standards enable integration with many external resources. Here we describe the end-to-end data processing and management at the DCIC to generate a high-quality and persistent product. Our data management and stewardship solutions enable a functioning Consortium and make LINCS a valuable scientific resource that aligns with big data initiatives such as the BD2K NIH Program and concords with emerging data science best practices including the findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable (FAIR) principles.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST
Intergenerational effects of endocrine-disrupting compounds: a review of the Michigan polybrominated biphenyl registry. Curtis SW, Conneely KN, Marder ME, Terrell ML, Marcus M, Smith AK
Epigenomics (Jun 2018)

Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a broad class of chemicals present in many residential products that can disrupt hormone signaling and cause health problems in humans. Multigenerational cohorts, like the Michigan polybrominated biphenyl registry, are ideal for studying the effects of intergenerational exposure. Registry participants report hormone-related health problems, particularly in those exposed before puberty or those in the second generation exposed through placental transfer or breastfeeding. However, more research is needed to determine how EDCs cause health problems and the mechanisms underlying intergenerational exposure. Utilizing existing data in this registry, along with genetic and epigenetic approaches, could provide insight to how EDCs cause human disease and help to determine the risk to exposed populations and future generations.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 19:00:00 EST